Some former and promising recent U.S. VTVL demonstrators
for technology research in suborbital flights as well as for moon landings
 

Norbert Brügge, Germany

 

Company

 Demonstrator name Original purpose  Status Propulsion (psessure fed)
Engine (Typ) Thrust Cooling Propellant

McDonnell Douglas

Delta Clipper (DC-X)

VTVL demonstrator  

four RL-10-5

    LH2/LOX

Armadillo Aerospace

VTOL demonstrator

Ansari X-Prize

destoyed

four small engines

 ?  

Mix of Hydrogen-Peroxide
in water and Methanol

Vertical Drag Racer (VDR)

Test vehicle

retired

XPC-06

  ablative  Ethanol / LOX

retired

LLC-08

  extra film

retired

experimental

   

Quad

X-Prize Cup
 (Lunar lander)

retired

XPC-06-1

2,900 lbf  ablative  Ethanol / LOX

Quad

retired

XPC-06-2

 

Quad

retired

XPC-07

  extra film

Mod

retired

XPC-07

  extra film

Quad

NG LLC (Lunar lander)

retired

XPC-06-2

  ablative Ethanol / LOX

Quad

retired

XPC-07

  extra film

Mod

retired

LLC-08-1

4,000 lbf

SuperMod

retired

LLC-08-2

 

Mod 2000

CRuSR (VTOL for research)

retired

CRuSR-10

4,600 lbf

Dalek

retired

CRuSR-11

 

 

Engine test for NASA

 

 ?

  ? Methane / LOX

NASA

Morpheus  (up-scaled Quad)

Lunar Lander

active

HD5

5,400 lbf extra film Methane / LOX

Masten Space Systems

XA-0.1

X-Prize Cup

retired

two engines

a 500 lbf extra film

Isopropanol / LOX

XA-0.1B (Xombie)

NG LLC (lunar lander)

active

B-750

750 lb extra film

XA-0.1E1 (Xoie)

retired

XA-0.1E2 (Xaero A)

CRuSR (VTVL for research)

lost

XA-0.1E4 (Xaero B)

 inactive  Cyclops-AL-3 1,000 lbf

XA-0.1E5 (Xodiac)

 active 1200 lbf
Blue Origin

PM-1 (Goddard

VTVL demonstrator

retired

BE-2 (9)

a 254 lbf    Kerosene (RP-1) /
Hydrogen-Peroxide

PM-2 (New Shepard)

retired

BE-2 (5)

 
JAXA

RTV

 
ESA

Callisto

 


X-Prize Cup: The Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge is a competition funded by NASA's Centennial Challenges program. The competition offers a series of prizes for teams that launch a vertical takeoff/vertical landing (VTVL) rocket
that achieves the vehicle to move between the surface of the Moon and its orbit. The multi-level competition is conducted by the X-Prize Foundation, with sponsorship from the Northrop Grumman Corporation. It has been held annually at the X-Prize Cup.

NG LLC: The X-Prize Cup was canceled for 2008, the Lunar Lander Challenge was held separately by Northrop Grumman.
Winners NG LLC, Level 1: First prize: Armadillo Aerospace 24 October 2008.  Second prize: Masten Space Systems 7 October 2009
Winners NG LLC, Level 2: First prize: Masten Space Systems 30 October 2009.  Second prize: Armadillo Aerospace 12 September 2009

CRuSR: Masten Space Systems of California, and Armadillo Aerospace of Texas were awarded contracts by NASA to provide flight opportunities for engineers, technologists and scientific researchers to fly technology payloads into space. It is part of NASA’s Commercial Reusable Suborbital Research (CRuSR) program.

 

Armadillo Aerospace

 

   



 

 The Ansari X-Prize demonstrator's propulsion system consisted
 of four pressure-fed, hydrogen peroxide in 50% water + Methanol,
 monopropellant system engines fed from a single tank.

 

 Vertical Drag Racer (VDR)


      
VDR-1



Engine XPC-06-1 with graphite nozzle)


           

VDR's with various experimental engines
 

   Phase X-Prize Cup / NGLLC (2006-2007), Demonstrator Quad and Mod



Quad demonstrator flight



 with XPC-06-1 engine


   
XPC-06-1 and XPC-06-2  engines



Quad (Pixel) demonstrator with XPC-06-2


Quad (Texel)



with new XPC-07 engine (crashed)



Mod demonstrator


    
with new film cooled engine XPC-07

 

 Phase NGLLC (2008-2009), Demonstrator Mod and SuperMod



Mod demonstrator


 
with new engine design (LLC-08-1)



 



Mod, with single pressure tank



SuperMod, with green pressure tanks



and engine LLC-08-2


      
SuperMod, with Scorpius pressure tanks

 

 Phase CRuSR (2010-2011) , Demonstrator Mod2000 and Dalek



Mod, with nosecone



SuperMod, with nosecone


    
Mod2000, with new engine CRuSR-10


 
Mod2000



Dalek rear



Dalek, in new outfit


     
Dalek with engine CRuSR-11 (tested 2008)
 


Dalek

 Engine tests with Methane fuel for NASA



Mod, with experimental engine for Methane fuel


  
Mod, with experimental engine for Methane fuel

 

 

Masten Space Systems

 

 Phase X-Prize Cup (2006-2007),  Demonstrator XA-0.1


  
XA-0.1



XA-0.1

 

 Phase NG LLC (2008-2009),  Demonstrator XA-0.1-B1 (Xombie)


The XA-0.1-B1 (“Xombie”) is a Masten B-class type A vehicle that has been in active service since 2009. The XA-0.1-B1 holds the company’s record for the most commercial rocket multi-flight test campaigns at 14, and most flights by ANY rocket powered airframe at 227. Xombie competed in the Lunar Lander Challenge Phase 1 in 2009, as has been instrumental in the development and refinement of Entry, Decent, and Landing (EDL) Technologies for NASA and JPL.


        
XA-0.1-B1 (Xombie)



Engine B-750


        

 

 Phase NG LLC (2008-2009),  Demonstrator XA-0.1-E1 (Xoie)


The XA-0.1-E1 (“Xoie”) is a Masten E-class type A vehicle that participated in the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge in 2009. Xoie’s rugged reusability and superior precision landing accuracy won Masten the top prize of $1 Million USD. The Lunar Lander Challenge was funded by NASA’s Centennial Challenges program and managed by the X Prize Foundation.


  


 

 Phase CRuSR (2010-2012), Demonstrator XA-0.1-E2 (Xaero-A)

The XA-0.1-E2 (“Xaero-A”) was a Masten E-class type B test vehicle that was in service in 2011 and 2012. Xaero-A was the first Masten vehicle to feature a composite aeroshell for improved performance at higher altitudes and velocities. Xaero-A was lost on its 115th flight while testing out new technologies to higher altitudes and commands.


   




 


        
 

 Phase CRuSR (2014-2015), Demonstrator XA-0.1-E4 (Xaero-B)


The XA-0.1-E4 (“Xaero-B”) is a follow on to the Xaero-A program. An advanced “E-Class” aeroshell vehicle, with a primary focus of developing Masten’s cradle landing technology. Xaero-B has the new engine
Cyclops-AL-3.


   
First version ?
   

          
 

  Phase CRuSR (2014-2015), Demonstrator XA-0.1-E5 (Xodiac)


The XA-0.1-E5 (“Xodiac”) is the newest vehicle in Masten’s fleet. Developed as a follow on to Xombie, Xodiac’s primary focus is terrestrial demonstration for Lunar and Martian landing technologies.The versatile open frame allows for mounting of payloads and sensors both internally and externally.


       
 


       
Engine Cyclops-AL-3 and latest Xodiac-Cobalt version

 

 

NASA

 

  Morpheus Lunar Lander


     

Morpheus's new 19 kN engine HD4 permitted NASA to design a larger vehicle than its parent, a copy of Armadillo Aerospace's Quad (Pixel) rocket lander.
The engine was upgraded again (HD5) in 2013 finally reaching 24 kN (Isp 321 sec).