Why the Chicxulub-impact was an explosive supervolcano

(An asteroid impact that killed the dinosaurs, there were not)

Norbert Brügge, Germany
mailto: bruegge14643@gmail.com

Upload: 2013

The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary characterizes one of the five great mass extinction in Earth's history. It is believed that these faunas-cut was caused by the impact of an asteroid on the Yucatan Peninsula 65 million years ago (Chicxulub-impact). Exposed sediment series in the Cretaceous/Tertiary transition in the world were associated with this scenario. In many outcrops at the K/T-boundary were detected worldwide ejecta (glassy spherules) and elevated iridium concentrations. As type locality (Global Standard Stratotype Section and Point, GSSP) defines the K/T-boundary the profile El Kef (Tunisia) with a so-called "Boundary Tone".

Since the results of biostratigraphic analysis of borehole Yaxcopoil-1 on Yucatan (2004) were published, began a controverse debate about the causal relations between Chicxulub event and K/T-boundary.
The group Keller/Stinnesbeck/Addate doubt this context. They are convinced that they have detected in the core from the borehole Ya-1 above the ejecta (breccias) about 0.50 m Cretaceous sediments with foraminifera in situ. That would mean that the Chicxulub event has to do with the K/T-boundary nothing. The advocates of causal relations between Chicxculub event and K/T-boundary try to discredit these results.

Apart from the K/T debate, the author doubts that the Chicxulub crater in Yucatan documents the impact of an asteroid with massive global effects. The detection of an andesitic melt in the center of the crater (with dioritic magma chamber in the underground) suggest the explosion of a supervolcano. It is absolutely inconceivable that an andesitic melt is compatible to molten dolomites or limestone as target-rocks by an impact. Gravimetric investigations on Yucatan, suggest that the former magma chamber is not limited under the center of the crater. Possibly a large magma chamber in the crust reach far to south. The presumed "peak ring" in the center of the crater is an illusion and was undetectable by drilling. Finally, the arguments of the advocates for an impact origin of the Chicxulub are not convincing, more shaky, because:

  • Iridium is not only an indicator of "young" extraterrestrial material. It is been since the creation of the planet exists in its liquid core.
  • Planar deformation or shock-generated features are equal indicators of volcanic eruptions, or shock waves by magma movements.
  • As with other supposedly large impact structures, it was also in this case not possible to reach a geochemical correlation between target-rocks and "impact"-melt.
    (therefore also the "Tektites" are of volcanic origin)
  • The so-called impact-melt in the Chicxulub is clearly of magmatic origin (pure andesite in the depth of about 1400 m). The significance of this fact is completely ignored.
    The found glasses are either geochemically compatible with the andesitic melt or are a mix with molten bedrock.

Due to the andesitic melt in the crater there have been only a influences from inside to outward. Probably a huge overpressure explosion took place, by this the bedrock was destroyed and the debris were widely distributed. The strewn field extends to Belize, Guatemala and southern Mexico. The detected andesitic melt ascended after the explosion and is secondarily penetrated in parts of the breccia and the bedrock (Veins, Dykes). It is also likely that falling-back debris are sunken primarily in the melt and were partially melted.

The effect of Chicxulub event is limited. In the Caribbean or Central America in the studied outcrops are no clear evidence of Tsunami sediments that have something to do with the Chicxulub event. The strewn field of the Chicxulub breccia is relatively limited. There is no evidence of eruptive melt in breccias outside the crater on Yucatan. The presence of glassy spherules and volcanoclasts in the studied outcrops in Central America and Caribbean is very diverse and marked a longer period of the Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene. For this and for the iridium concentrations, a persistent regional volcanism may be considered.


IODP Expedition 364 aims to drill into the Chicxulub impact structure to recover cores from, and above, the "peak ring". The expedition will drill a single 1200 m deep offshore borehole (Chicx-03A) at site about 30km northwest of Progreso, Mexico, on the Yucatan shelf, Gulf of Mexico. Date: 1st April to 31st May 2016.
Working hypothese
Chicx-03A will sample the material that forms a topographic peak ring. It will test the working hypotheses that peak rings are formed from: 1) overturned and uplifted upper, mid, or lower crustal basement rocks, 2) mega-breccias, or 3) some other material. One intrinsic feature of the peak ring is that it is a seismic low-velocity zone, despite some models predicting it consists of lithologies from the formerly deeply buried basement of the Yucatan. Sampling these lithologies will test the hypothesis that peak rings consist of lithologies that are deeply sourced but heavily brecciated and, hence, have higher porosities than surrounding impact and target rocks. This hypothesis, if correct, has consequences for questions of peak rings serving as habitat for exotic microbiology, due to the potential existence of macro-porosity, in the presence of significant hydrothermal circulation.
Chicx-04A will penetrate the enigmatic dipping reflectors (1200 – 1400 m) that run from the outer edge of the peak ring and dip inwards. It will test whether the dipping reflectivity beneath the peak ring is: 1) a lithologic boundary between uplifted basement lithologies and younger Mesozoic sediments, 2) is a thrust fault formed during peak ring emplacement, 3) is the result of vigorous hydrothermal circulation in the wake of peak ring emplacement.


A. The Chicxulub structure

1. Drilling programs
Drilling programs have been conducted as part of the PEMEX oil exploration surveys, the UNAM Chicxulub Program, the Federal Commission of Electricity exploration program (FCE-UNAM) and the international Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP).
Several exploratory wells were drilled by Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) in and around the structure. Three of the boreholes (Yucatan-6, Chicxulub-1, and Sacapuc-1) penetrated a melt rock that was interpreted to be an extrusive (volcanic) andesite. Further examination of samples from the Yucatan-6 borehole, however, revealed shocked quartz in a polymict breccia that overlays a thick melt unit in the interior of the structure, indicating that the Chicxulub structure is an impact crater (and this was an error). Because Yucatan-6 was an oil exploration borehole, and much of the cored material has been lost. The same situation exists for two other exploration boreholes drilled within the rim of the structure (Chicxulub-1 and Sacapuc-1) and five boreholes drilled outside the structure (Ticul-1, Yucatan-1, -2, -4, and 5A.
The first effort to obtain such cores was initiated by the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), which began a shallow drilling program that has recovered additional samples of "impact" breccias in 3 boreholes outside the rim of the crater. Recovery depths range from ~60 m to ~700 m.
However, several deep boreholes are still needed to penetrate melt or breccia lithologies within the center of the crater. The first of these is called the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP), which was drilled as part of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) in a coordinated effort with UNAM.

PEMEX developed and carried out a drilling program starting in 1952.The boreholes drilled a sequence of sediments with variable thickness. Boreholes Chicxulub-1 (1,581 m), Sacapuc-1 (1,530 m) and Yucatan-6 (1,645 m) drilled into a unit of igneous-textured rocks. The melt unit presents a minimum thickness of about 250 m. The breccias section is about 250-400 m thick in these boreholes. The breccias section was also cut in boreholes outside the basin at increasing distance away from the crater center in boreholes Ticul-1 (3,175 m), Yucatan-2 (3,488 m), Yucatan-5A (3,003 m), Yucatan-1 (3,226 m) and Yucatan-4 (2,425 m). The breccia sequence drilled in boreholes outside the basin present considerable thickness up to 400 to 600 m. The Paleozoic crystalline basement is drilled in boreholes Yucatan-1 and Yucatan-4.

Breccia and melt from Yucatan-6 well, core sections N13, N14, N16, N17 and N19, and from the Chicxulub-1 well, core section N10 have been analyzed. Yucatan-6 N13, N14, N16, N17 and N19 came from: 1,100-1,103 m, 1,208-1,211 m, 1,295.5-1,299 m, and 1,393-1,394 m, respectively. Chicxulub-1 N10 melt samples come from interval 1,393-1,394 m and show fine-to-medium grained coherent microcrystalline matrix.  Breccias contain fine-grained altered melt clasts dispersed in a medium-to-coarse grained matrix of pyroxene and feldspar. Clasts contain fragments of basement silicate material (granitic gneiss, amphibolite). Melt and breccias in Yucatan-6 extend from about 1,100 m to more than 1,400 m; sequence is well-sorted with an apparent gradation. They also reported observations on shock mosaicism and diaplectic glasses. Samples from Chicxulub-1 N10 and Yucatan-6 N19 were analyzed for iridium contents. Iridium abundances were relatively high with variable contents. However, these both factors are not only relevant as evidence of an impact event.

Unique "melt-rock" image (andesite) from Y-6 (N19),  Source: Homepage J. Smit

Another rare photos of andesite from the borehole Y-6

Andesitic "glass" fragment (Claeys)

Breccia-rich melt from Y-6 (N-14) with enclosed anhydrite
Source: Homepage J. Smit

 Breccia-rich melt from Y-6 (N-14), Source: Homepage J. Smit

Y6 (N-14): Breccia-rich melt with basement debris (such of granite, gneis and amphibolithe)


Analysis of the Chicxulub-Andesite

Diagram of the analyzed data

  Analyzes of "andesitic melt" from PEMEX boreholes
(Schuraytz et al., 1994 & Hildebrandt et al., 1991, Swisher et al., 1992)


Bohrung Yucatan-6



N-17 N-19 N-10 "Andesite"
SiO2 62.30 61.90 63.20 60.50 54.80 57.40 61.20 58.50 61.70 58.30 57.60 64.60 59.71-58.45
Al2O3 14.60 13.10 12.60 13.60 15.30 16.41 14.70 15.50 13.70 13.70 15.50 14.90 15.84-13.77
MgO 2.90 3.20 3.10 3.20 3.15 2.96 2.74 2.75 2.55 2.92 3.05 2.75 5.42-4.06
CaO 8.80 10.40 10.20 10.50 11.90 10.18 9.30 10.55 10.01 12.10 11.41 5.50 11.24-9.35
Na2O 2.10 4.40 4.00 4.70 3.25 3.10 2.75 3.41 2.54 3.41 3.62 3.71 4.60-4.01
K2O 2.50 1.90 1.90 1.90 1.75 2.47 2.91 2.19 2.27 1.06 1.76 2.72 2.42-2.07
FeO 4.80 4.80 4.50 5.00 5.50 4.80 3.90 3.56 3.83 3.70 4.24 4.60 4.36-3.49
TiO2 0.50 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.56 0.54 0.40 0.40 0.36 0.39 0.43 0.53 0.13
MnO 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.13 0.12 0.09 0.11 0.06 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.14

  Weight fractions in %

Thin sections of andesite melt with grains of feldspar and pyroxene

 Y-6 N17

Y-6 N19

Y-6 N19

C-1 N9

C-1 N10

Thin sections of andesite melt with grains of feldspar (plagioklase)

The observed "suevite" of borehole Yucatan-6 is clearly stratified in terms of composition, grain size, type of matrix and concentration of melt material. Three distinct types of "suevite" breccia can be identified:

  • An upper "suevite" (carbonate-rich). Small densely packed carbonate clasts clearly dominate over crystalline basement fragments. The clasts are embedded in a porous, 10 micron-size matrix. This "suevite"  represents a fall-back material.
  • A middle "suevite" (clast-rich). The silicate basement clasts and altered silicate melt fragments increase in proportion with depth. The clasts are suspended in a more compacted and much less porous matrix.
  • A lower "suevite" (thermometamorphic). This is composed of basement and evaporite clasts and abundant silicate melt fragments. The matrix is completely crystalline and consists of euhedral feldspar and pyroxene grains.

The lower "suevite" can be viewed as an intermediary unit between middle "suevite" and the underlying the melt rocks, already described by Kring and Boynton (1992), Schuryatz et al. (1994), and Warren et al. (1996). It appears to have reacted with the underlying hot andesitic melt-rock matrix. Samples of melt clasts, glasses, melt rocks and melt matrix separates were analyzed for major oxides (Sharpton et al., 1992; Sigurdsson et al., 1991; Izett et al., 1990; Claeys et al., 2003).

Spectrum of analyzed silicate melt particles


Analyzes of silicate melt particles (Yucatan-6)
(Claeys et al., 2003)


Upper "suevite"

Middle "suevite"

Lower "suevite"


N13 N13 N13 N14 N-14 (av) N-14 (min) N-14 (max) N14 N14  N14-5 N14-10 N14-11 N14-14 N14-15 N15 (av) N15 (min)  N15 (max) N15-10
SiO2 42.8 45.2 32.7 44.3 64.7 63.9 66.0 67.9 60.9  52.00 50.90 50.9 50.2 49.8 62.3 60.7 64.0 59.6
Al2O3 9.8 9.5 7.7 14.1 18.1 17.7 18.8 16.9 16.6 11.2 11.0 11.7 11.1 11.0 16.6 15.8 17.4 13.1
MgO 5.4 4.9 4.3 15.5 2.9 2.7 3.2 2.5 5.4 4.0 3.9 4.2 4.0 3.5 2.0 1.5 2.4 4.2
CaO 16.2 17.0 25.7 3.1 2.7 2.6 3.0 1.7 1.9 12.0 12.5 11.5 13.1 13.5 3.2 2.5 3.9 7.7
Na2O 2.4 2.5 2.1 2.6 6.5 6.0 7.3 0.6 0.9 3.4 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.6 4.6 3.2 5.4 5.1
K2O 1.3 1.8 1.1 0.7 1.6 0.6 2.6 2.7 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 5.6 4.1 7.6 2.2
FeO 4.1 4.0 2.9 13.2 3.9 3.5 4.6 5.2 9.1 4.3 4.4 4.7 4.4 3.9 5.5 4.7 6.00 5.2
TiO2 0.4 0.4 0.3 - 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.7 1.0 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 - - - 0.5


0.1 0.1 0.1 - - - - 0.07 0.09 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 - - - 0.1

                     Weight fractions in %

Note: Chemically different silicate melt particles occur in all parts of the "suevite". The amounts of  SiO2, K2O and Na2O are variable and not compatible with the andesitic melt below . These melt fragments document a mixed melt at the contact of magma and bedrock.  Only two analyses show andesitic-dacitic composition.

1.2 UNAM

The UNAM drilling program incorporated continuous coring in eight boreholes distributed within and immediately outside the crater rim, with three boreholes (UNAM-5, UNAM-6, UNAM-7) cutting the carbonate-"impact" breccia contact. The boreholes sampled the "impact" breccias, with the carbonate-"impact" breccia contact lying at varying depths between 222 and 332 m. "Impact" breccias are characterized by carbonate, melt and crystalline basement clasts supported in a carbonate-rich or melt-rich matrix. Two breccia units, have been cored, where upper breccias are rich in carbonate clasts and lower breccias are rich in melt and basement clasts.
In the Santa Elena (U5) borehole the contact of "impact" breccias and Paleogene carbonates lie at 332 m. The"Suevitic" breccias present a thickness greater than 146 m. The basal carbonates up to 30 m above the "impact" breccias contact are characterized by white creamy limestones, with several thin clay layers and variable content of clay lenses.


 "Impact" breccias are characterized by carbonate, melt and crystalline basement clasts supported in a carbonate-rich or melt-rich matrix. Two breccia units have been cored, where upper breccias are rich in carbonate clasts and lower breccias are rich in melt and basement clasts. Upper breccias have high magnetic susceptibilities, low seismic velocities, low density and high porosities and permeabilities. Lower breccias in contrast show low susceptibilities, variable high seismic velocities and lower porosity and permeability.

Source: Homepage J. Smit (2)

Breccias from UNAM-5 with crystalline basement clast


As part of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) program, exploratory boreholes have been drilled near Merida, Huhi and Valladolid.
The program includes three boreholes (BEM1, BEH1, BEV4) drilled with continuous core recovery system, which allows investigation of the stratigraphy in this zone.

Only the borehole Valladolid BEV-4 cored a  34 m thick section of breccias between 250 to 284 m deep, which is part of the proximal ejecta blanket deposits. Breccias are characterized by abundant clasts of limestone, dolomite, gypsum and anhydrite.


1.4 CSDP (Yaxcopoil-1)

The Yaxcopoil-1 well, drilled as part of the CSDP international project. Continuous coring recovered cores from 404 m down to 1511 m of Paleogene sediments (400 m), "impactites" (100 m) and Cretaceous carbonates (1000 m). The 100 m thick "impactite" sequence is formed by six distinct units, which record variable conditions of emplacement and "post-impact" alteration. The "impactite" sequence in the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole was cored from 795 m to 895 m.
The section is formed by six distinct units. Subunits are characterized by distinct textural and compositional differences in size, type and relative abundance of clasts and melt-rich or carbonate-rich matrix types.
  •  Upper Sorted  “Suevite” (795-808 m)

  •  Lower Sorted “Suevite” (808-823 m)

  •  Upper “Suevite” (823-846 m)

  •  Middle “Suevite” (846-861 m)

  •  Brecciated Melt Rock (861-885 m)

  •  Lower “Suevite” (885-895 m)



Upper sorted "suevite"

Lower sorted "suevite"

Upper "suevite"

Middle "suevite"

"Suevite" intruded melt

Lower "suevite"


Dyke "suevite"

Source: Homepage J.Smit  



Spectrum of analyzed silicate melt particles


Analyzes of silicate melt particles (Yaxcopoil-1)
(Tuchscherer et al., 2004)


Upper "suevite"

 Middle "suevite"

Brecciated melt rock

Lower "suevite"


n=20 n=14 n=33 n=25 n=16 n=20


60.51 56.97 50.09 58.43 51.78 59.35


18.70 20.10 15.24 21.23 15.85 18.00


1.23 0.33 6.52 0.57 3.76 0.19


4.36 4.32 0.75 5.43 4.39 0.88


1.31 2.34 0.47 3.87 1.47 1.18


11.17 1.76 3.83 7.10 7.05 12.66


1.05 4.23 5.19 1.67 2.43 5.05


0.73 0.77 0.48 0.28 0.71 0.52


- 0.03 0.01 - - 0.03


(Hecht et al., 2004)


Upper "suevite"

Middle "suevite"

Brecciated melt rock

Lower "suevite"


n=12 n=22 n=17 n=34 n=22 n=9 n=25 n=9 n=7 n=37 n=10
SiO2 50.80 50.07 45.92 52.78 44.82 50.39 49.42 45.95 53.30 53.81 56.08
Al2O3 14.33 14.56 16.45 16.97 14.92 17.75 15.55 16.09 18.37 16.82 17.37
MgO 6.27 6.28 1.12 2.89 2.04 3.85 4.93 5.53 3.74 0.16 0.35
CaO 1.60 2.54 4.45 5.12 3.74 5.30 9.17 4.40 6.26 2.04 2.65
Na2O 0.48 1.03 3.46 4.05 3.26 3.17 3.16 2.42 2.63 2.66 3.29
K2O 4.32 3.92 3.47 3.92 2.36 3.08 1.93 1.98 4.29 8.35 7.51
FeO 7.11 6.77 4.99 1.95 4.63 3.95 3.74 3.75 3.03 0.81 0.99
TiO2 0.62 0.63 0.56 0.50 0.39 0.19 0.46 0.37 0.09 0.22 0.21


0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.02 - 0.01


(Nelson et al., 2012)

   Upper "suevite" Middle "suevite

Brecciated melt rock


54.90 61.50 58.30 54.30 55.70


24.80 23.80 16.10 27.40 26.80


1.27 0.20 0.11 0.19 0.75


8.67 5.16 1.25 10.40 9.24


4.96 5.74 4.90 4.94 6.18


1.54 3.38 3.36 1.04 0.96


1.13 0.68 0.57 1.24 1.77

Weight fractions in %


Note: Chemically different silicate melt particles occur in all parts of the "suevite". The amounts of  SiO2, K2O and Na2O are variable and not compatible with an andesitic melt. These melt fragments document a mixed melt of magma and bedrock.


Some selected quotes:

Nelson et al.  (Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta 86 (2012)
Unit 5: The hand samples from unit 5 contain melt clasts that are usually pink, brown, or green in colour, amidst a dark brown or green matrix. Previous authors reported these laths to be plagioclase, orthoclase, potassium feldspar, and rare pyroxene (Dressler et al., 2004; Kring et al., 2004; Tuchscherer et al., 2004a; Wittmann et al., 2004). Most of the laths consist of plagioclase with consistent compositions between the rim and centre of the clasts. In addition, near the rim of the melt clasts, the tabular laths are often consistent with a potassium feldspar composition (adularia) coincident with a general enrichment of K along these rims.
The clasts and matrix in samples from unit 5 have very different major element signatures. Multiple generations of Mg-rich phyllosilicate are present in the samples. In terms of weight percent abundances, MgO concentrations in the matrix phyllosilicate range from 15 to 30 wt.%. In contrast, the melt clasts contain 0–5 wt.% MgO. MgO and Al2O3 are spatially decoupled, as Al2O3 has a range of about 15–25 wt.% and is concentrated in melt clasts. The matrix, in contrast, contains Al2O3 concentrations ranging from below detection limit to 11 wt.%. Melt clasts in unit 5 contain a large range of SiO2 concentrations, from about 54 to 66 wt.%, whereas the matrix contains 37–50 wt.% based on point analyses. There is an enrichment of K2O on most of the edges of the melt clasts forming an enriched rim typically 50–100 and sometimes up to 400 µm. In addition, the rims of both the large melt clasts and the small melt particles floating in the matrix contain or are covered with laths of K2O-rich adularia. The Mg-rich matrix material itself is very poor in K2O, often containing K2O values below detection limits. However, FeO is enriched in the matrix compared to the melt clasts.

Yax-1: 864 m (BMR)

Kring et al. (Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39, Nr 6, 2004)
Unit 3 (US)

This 23 m-thick melt-rich unit of breccias is dominated by fragments of altered silicate melt, generally with microcrystalline textures. Although some fragments appear to have been partly to wholly glassy before being replaced by phyllosilicates and calcite. Primary minerals in the microcrystalline melts include pyroxene, plagioclase and alkali feldspar. Some of these silicate melts contained immiscible carbonate melt, gas vesicles (some of which were subsequently filled with secondary calcite and silicates), and flow-aligned crystals. In general, these melt fragments are more vesicular than those in the overlying suevitic units. The melt fragments in this breccia section entrained feldspar, quartz, magnetite, lithic metaquartzites, micritic carbonate, shale, and crystalline mafics.
The textural distinction between solidified silicate melt with immiscible carbonate melt and solidified silicate melt with gas vesicles subsequently filled with calcite is subtle. Ellipsoids of carbonate protruding from the edges of silicate melt fragments into the breccia matrix indicate that the carbonate was solid before the fragmentation of the melt fragment and incorporation into the breccia. In this case, the carbonate is a primary phase and was immiscible when the melts were molten. Ellipsoids of carbonate completely bounded by silicate melt could also represent immiscible carbonate melt but, in these cases, could instead be ellipsoids of secondary carbonate filling gas-evacuated vesicles."
Unit 4 (MS)

A 15 m-thick breccia was logged immediately above the green melt unit with abundant and sometimes very large (up to 20 cm) clasts of banded melts. The melt is dominated by microcrystalline, pyroxene, plagioclase, and alkali feldspar. Similar to the green melt, although the color (shades of rose) is different. The melt entrained small amounts of shocked and unshocked clasts of quartz, feldspar, sandstone, metaquartzite, and granite. These melt fragments exist in a breccia that is variously clast and matrix supported, the latter of which appears to have been a conduit for fluids and is now charged with secondary alkali feldspar and subordinate carbonate.
Unit 5 (BMR)

"The green melt is generally massive in appearance, but contains flow lines on both macroscopic and microscopic scales that are suggestive of incompletely mixed and rapidly quenched melt. No fresh glasses were observed. The melt is dominated by microcrystalline, Ca-rich pyroxene, plagioclase and alkali feldspar. Granitic clasts up to 4.5 cm and mafic clasts up to 6.5 cm were observed. In thin section, small amounts of shocked and unshocked clasts are entrained in the melt, including quartz and quartzite with planar deformation features and ballen structures after cristobalite, isolated altered feldspar and mafic minerals, and mafic lithics. Inclusions within the thin section are aligned, as in a trachytic texture, implying that the melt was flowing before solidification. The green melt is also brecciated and highly altered along its margins where the contacts were conduits for carbonate-rich fluids. While the core was being recovered, a 10 m-thick carbonate-charged and brecciated green impact melt unit (unit 6) with larger clasts, including a 34 cm granite, was logged below the principal 24 m-thick green melt unit (unit 5).


Compositions of pyroxene and feldspar in the groundmass of the Yax-1 green melt (unit 5) compared to similar compositions in the Yucatan-6.
 The unit 5 samples are Yax-1 (861.4 and 863.5 mbsf). The Yucatan-6 sample is Y6N17.

Left: Yax-1; Ballen quartz within the pyroxene and plagioclase groundmass of the green andesitic melt


Hecht et al.  (Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39, Nr 7 (2004)
Types of Melt Particles
"Type 1 melt particles are brownish to pale green and lack any primary crystallization, except remnants of devitrification spherulites. The shape of these fragments is subrounded in most cases and rarely angular. Some large vesicles can occur, and particle margins may display porosity at the micrometer scale, both indicating degassing during cooling of the melt. Melt particles of type 1 have only been observed in samples from the upper three suevite units with a rough trend of decreasing frequency from top to bottom.
Type 2 melt particles are also pale green to brownish in color and may contain abundant vesicles, up to about 30 vol%. Smaller particles frequently exhibit angular shard-like shapes that probably formed due to broken-up vesicles. Some plagioclase microphenocrysts occur, in contrast to melt particles of type 1. Rims of melt particle shards are frequently enriched in plagioclase microphenocrysts. Similar to type 1, the melt particles of type 2 were only observed in the upper three suevite units.
Type 3 melt particles are the most common in all suevite units, except in unit 1, where type 1 and 2 dominate. Type 3 melt particles are greenish to brown-beige colors and display sizes up to several cm. They comprise a variety of shapes in units 2 to 4, including uniform sub-rounded, elongated, lumpy, elongated, and twisted forms, and more angular forms in units 5 and 6. Type 3 melt particles are moderately to nearly completely crystallized with plagioclase and clinopyroxene laths, commonly displaying flow textures. An increase in the degree of crystallization with depth is evident from the samples of suevite units 2 to 4. Within units 4, 5, and 6, melt particles of type 3 are generally well crystallized (but aphanitic). Clinopyroxene is abundant in melt particles at the lowest two units of the suevitic sequence. In units 2 to 4, microphenocrysts of clinopyroxene were only observed as inclusions within patches of secondary K-feldspar in type 3 melt particles.
Type 4 melt particles are dark brown to nearly opaque, subrounded to subangular in shape, and always display an aphanitic texture. They are generally rich in clasts of silicate or carbonate minerals (mostly quartz, feldspar, and calcite."

Melt particles

"With some exceptions, most melt particles display SiO2 contents between 57 and 63 wt%, which represents the typical range of andesites.
Many of the other major element contents of the melt particles exhibit a wide range. These include the alkalies that are very sensitive to hydrothermal alteration. Therefore, any rock classification based on these elements has to be performed with caution. For example, the extension of melt particle compositions from the andesite field toward the trachyandesite and trachyte field can be attributed to potassium enrichment during hydrothermal alteration. Most melt particles exhibit relatively high Al2O3 and MgO contents compared to the continental crust and average impact melt rocks.

The type 1 and 2 melt particles follow a similar compositional trend that is different from type 3 and 4 particles. Type 1 and 2 are significantly depleted in CaO and Na2O compared to the average continental crust and (impact) melts from Chicxulub and other large craters world-wide. Furthermore, type 1 and 2 melt particles display a rather wide range in FeO und K2O contents with a distinct trend of FeO and K2O enrichment with SiO2 and Al2O3 depletion.
The melt particles of type 3 show the largest variation in chemical composition, which is related to the degree of primary crystallization (plagioclase and clinopyroxene) and the intensity of hydrothermal alteration. Particles in the upper suevite units, that only contain a few plagioclase microphenocrysts, have low CaO and Na2O and elevated FeO and MgO contents similar to those of type 1 and 2 particles. Particles with abundant clinopyroxene microphenocrysts have the highest CaO contents.
These melt particles are closest in composition to CaO-rich samples of the (impact) melt rocks derived from the Y-6 drill site with the exception of MgO, which is much higher in melt particles from Yax-1.
On average, K2O is enriched in melt particle type 3 compared to the continental crust and average (impact) melt rock, although patches of secondary Kfeldspar were not included in the microprobe analyses of melt particles, where they could be avoided. Melt particles of the lower suevite (unit 6) are pervasively altered by K-feldspar. In this case, secondary K-feldspar could not be avoided from the chemical analysis, which is evident from their high K2O contents. Most of the melt particles of type 3 have much higher MgO, and slightly lower FeO contents.
Compositions of the dark aphanitic melt particles (type 4) are closest to the average continental crust and average (impact) melt rock, although Al2O3 is enriched and SiO2 is depleted in comparison. Most particles of type 4 are andesitic and very similar in composition. One particle has a higher SiO2 content and resembles a dacite in composition, although the FeO, MgO, and TiO2 contents are rather high for a typical dacite. Two particles plot in the trachyandesite field; however, some secondary potassium enrichment can not be excluded."

Primary Composition of Impact Melts
"The determination of the primary impact melt composition is rather problematic in an environment in which significant post-impact hydrothermal alteration has occured.
Since hydrothermal mass transfer was shown to be important in those melt particles that were least crystallized before the onset of post-event alteration, we focus on the best crystallized melt particles of type 3 and on dark aphanitic melt particles (type 4), which show the least evidence of any alteration.
Most of the least-altered melt particles are andesitic in composition. One melt particle of type 4 possesses a higher dacitic SiO2 content, indicating that more acidic target (?) lithologies may locally be involved and were not homogenized to the bulk andesitic impact melt. The compositional range of the (impact) melt particles is consistent with previous studies on (impact) melts at Y-6 and C-1. The melt particles of type 3 with a high modal amount of clinopyroxene and relatively high CaO and low SiO2 contents, similar to those found at Y- 6, might suggest the presence of mafic lithologies in the target (?) rocks, e.g., basalts or basaltic andesites. Contribution of a mafic precursor component was proposed for the Chicxulub impact melt by Kettrup et al. (2000) and for Chicxulub-related spherules by Schulte et al. (2003). However, petrological studies on the Ca-rich impact melt rocks at Y-6 demonstrate that a possible contribution of mafic rocks (diabases, pyroxenites, or amphibolites) must have been limited (Kring and Boynton 1992). We propose that the elevated CaO (and MgO) contents and reduced SiO2 contents in the melt that characterize these clinopyroxene-rich particles result from the mixing of the silicate basement rocks with the overlying carbonate sequences."


2. My opinion to the origin of the Chicxulub structure

The whole debate about the genesis of drilled melt and breccias in the Chicxulub crater is conducted with wrong assumptions. The Chicxulub "impact" crater is in fact the caldera of a supervolcano that is created by a huge overpressure explosion. The volcanic origin is by drilled pure andesite in the center of the structure no doubt proved. The bedrock was blasted in a great extent and widely distributed.

Gravimetric investigations on Yucatan, suggest that the former magma chamber is not limited under the center of the Chicxulub crater. Possibly the dioritic magma chamber reach far to south. It is possible that the crater to south is open (no boreholes). That would be one explanation for the thick breccia units in Guatemala and South-Mexico.

The ascending andesitic melt in the center of the explosion had only a low eruptive potential. There is no evidence of eruptive melt in the breccias outside the crater on the Yucatan peninsula (questionable Y-5A). The caldera after the explosion was immediately covered with falling-back debris. The detection of dykes or veins in the bedrock (Ya-1) indicates lateral intrusions from the yet not cooled andesitic melt body (mixed with breccia). In two wells (C-1, Y-1) were found "ash with glass" in depths between 1300 and 1400 m. This is mysterious and would be worth a new analysis.
There are two different types of breccias from the ruined bedrock. There are breccias above the intact bedrock and breccia above the igneous andesite. The breccias above the bedrock has no contact with the melt and are unchanged. The breccias above the andesite (S-1, C-1, Y-1 wells) are melted or are in contact with melt, in decreasing intensity upwards. Possibly the lowest parts of falling-back debris are already fallen in the andesitic melt. A sorting the breccias (called units) make not sense because convective movements in the melt are expected. In the upper part of the breccia-package are smaller components of falling-back debris concentrated and have already stratification. Glass fragments in the melted breccias-package are geochemically different. These fragments belong as the breccia to the falling-back debris after the explosion. Presumably, these glasses come from a mixed melt of igneous andesite and bedrock on top of the eruptive vent. All the others in Central America found glassy spherules and glass fragments have probably not a connection with the Chicxulub event (see below).
The occurrence of shock-generated features is not only an indicator for an impact event, because this is also proved by finds in volcanic structures.Very exceptional shock structures, that caused by volcanic shock waves, can you here seen: "Mysterious columnar sandstone"


B. The Chicxulub K/T-boundary debate

My opinion to the debate
PEMEX investigators of the l970’s (Meyerhoff et al and Lopez-Ramos) reported limestones with diverse planktic foraminiferal assemblages of upper Maastrichtian age overlying the breccia in wells Chicxulub-1 and Yucatan-6. An interval of 18 m-thick Maastrichtian marls overlying the "impact" breccia at the C-1 well. It was identified the planktic foraminiferal species Globotruncana rosetta, G. ventricosa, G. lapparenti, G. fornicata, Pseudoguembelina excolata, Heterohelix globocarinata, Pseudotextularia elegans, Planoglobulina carseyae, and Globigerinelloides volutus in this interval and conclude that the Chicxulub event occurred before the K/T-boundary.
By Keller et al (2004) in Yaxcopoil-1, unit 794.60-794.11m, detected Maastrichtian foraminifera are unfortunately dolomitic crystallized and give rise to discussion. Smit interpret these forms as dolomite rhombs.
Nevertheless, the conclusions of Keller et al. are right, and the Chicxulub event has nothing to do with the K/T-boundary. The K/T-boundary is biostratigraphically in profile clearly placed 0.50 cm above the breccias. The discussed sediments in the unit above the breccia are no catastrophic or hardground deposits (in sense Smit), they in contrary are layered in a normal marine milieu with moderatly movements during a longer period of time (300 000 years). A portion of the sediments shows millimeter fine laminations. This indicates slightly increased water-energy for the deposition of sediments. Moreover, in the sediments was bioturbation detected. It is also normal that at the beginning various reworked material of limestone and dolomite debris was deposited mainly. Striking are inserted thin layers of green clay (or glauconite) indicate altered sedimentation conditions. The last "green clay" layer (794.12m) is markedly and could be the equivalent of the "Boundary Tone". The bubblelike inclusions in the greenish layer could be spherules from the widespread post-Chicxulub volcanism. A significant time gap is possible because the following marine sediments suddenly documented a changed marine milieu.

The conclusions by Arz et al. (2004) for the Yaxcopoil-1 unit 794.60-794.11m are not right. They confirmed unintentionally the thesis of Keller el al., because the detected Cretaceous foraminifera are not reworked. They are in good condition. A reworking during the postulated catastrophic crater infilling (where are breccias) would have destroyed these filigree casings. Furthermore, how it should be possible these originally in the limestone embedded casing undamaged to isolate after a short time. The postulated mixed reworking assemblage of foraminifers (Albian-Turonian and Campanian-Maastrichtian) should be evaluated with caution. There are also long-lived Cretaceous species therein.

........  more here 


C. The distribution and significance of spherules-layers in Central America

The many layers with glassy spherules in outcrops of Central America -- which include the time of Late Cretaceous, the K/T-boundary and youngest Tertiary -- are a particular problem. A correlation is difficult and probably not useful to find the biostratigraphic K/T-boundary. The equivalent of "Boundary Tone" that marks the K/T transition, is with such spherules layers possibly not to find. This can only succeed with support of the biostratigraphy and that was due to the particular facies (fine clastic sediments) or a gap in the sedimentation not been convincingly possible *).
In many outcrops in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize and Haiti are spherules-layers from the late Maastrichtian (zone CF1) and the Danian (zone P1a) documented, and an attempt at a correlation has been subjected. A summary of the results presented Gerta Keller et al. in several publications. It is striking that the geochemical composition of the spherules varies, what is missing is a plausible explanation.

The special fine clastic sediments of Mimbral and Penon (no determinable fossils) at the transition between the Cretaceous and Tertiary are controversial interpreted as Tsunami deposits (Smit et al.) or as normal marine sedimentation (Keller et al.) after the Chicxulub event. Depending on, this sequence between the zones CF1 and P1a would be for the time insignificant or significant (300 000 years).

Outcrops with spherules layer, but without breccias in Mexico

Outcrops with breccias and/or spherules layer on Yucatan

The spherules in recurrent strata -- from late Maastrichtian (zone CF1) until early Paleocene (zone P1a) -- are registert as reworking of older layers of zone CF1 (eg Mendez marl). The lower layers with spherules should be derived from the Chicxulub event, the others should contain reworked spherules of lower layers. But that should be doubted, it is easy to explain everything with "reworking". The spherules layers fit well into an ongoing scenario of volcanic activities in the region, was possibly was only accompanied by the Chicxulub event and was steadily present until the early Paleocene. This includes recurrent Iridium-anomalies, that never indicate impact events. The Ir-peaks documented maxima in an ongoing volcanic scenario. The layers with glassy spherules are both stratigraphically and geochemically very unevenly distributed and should not be assigned to a single event. A connection with the Chicxulub event can mandatory not be detected. A more regional volcanism should be considered. The suspected volcanic scenario also includes the lapilli or ash from Guayal in other outcrops.

The few relevant geochemical analyzes of spherules in Central America documented regional differences. The Danian spherules of Beloc (Haiti) correspond to an andesitic magma. K-rich spherules from layers of Sierrita (Mexico) correspond to a phonolitic magma, but the most of them can not be allocated due to their low SiO2% contents. Spherules of Mimbral (Mexico) are different: Andesitic-dacitic and basaltic-trachybasaltic. Spherules in the Brazos (Texas) outcrops correspond with a basaltic magma.

El Mimbral: Chaotic spherules layers in Mendez marl

El Penon spherules

Selection of geochemical analyzes of spherules


Brazos (Texas)

Mimbral (Mexiko)

Sieritta (Mexiko)

Beloc (Haiti)

Keller et al

Smit et al 1992

Schulte et al 2006

Sigurdson et al 1991

Izett et al 1990

Stueben et al 2002


Yellow layer (n=250) (n=250)     Ca-rich (n=21) (n=12) (n=61) min max  (n=11) min max dark  yellow Smectite Smectite
SiO2 47.67 50.13 51.10 62.99 66.20 52.20 50.23 50.12 63.09 60.30 67.90 63.30 60.30 67.60 66.85 60.47 61.98 65.26
Al2O3 10.28 12.73 19.63 15.73 18.73 12.40 29.15 29.55 15.21 13.70 15.30 14.40 13.70 15.30 14.94 14.21 9.82 11.12
MgO 3.52 4.18 3.23 3.01 2.64 3.90 2.35 2.14 2.74 2.20 3.80 2.80 2.40 3.80 2.75 3.16 3.92 4.64
CaO 1.34 1.70 3.35 6.88 0.84 22.96 0.57 0.56 7.26 4.50 10.90 7.10 4.70 10.90 5.38 11.45 1.06 0.88
Na2O 0.08 0.09 0.11 3.34 0.84 2.02 0.10 0.10 3.63 2.40 3.70  3.30 2.40 3.60 1.96 2.78 0.05 0.06
K2O 4.51 4.89 0.45 1.50 3.68 0.58 7.25 7.14 1.59 1.00 1.80  1.50 1.00 1.80 1.53 1.40 1.13 1.10
FeO 18.07 15.55 2.40 5.32 5.67 4.23 1.88 1.49 5.44 4.60 5.70 5.30 4.70 5.70 5.31 5.37 5.07 4.81
TiO2 0.08 0.11 0.38 0.70 0.02 0.56 0.19 0.15 0.67 0.48 0.84 0.80 0.70 0.80 0.55 0.65 0.81 0.34
MnO 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.13 0.00 0.14 - - 0.14 0.00 0.18 0.20 0.10 0.20  -  - - -

          Weight fractions in %

Danian Beloc glass

Beloc glass and others

Two different varieties of Mimbral glass (Bell & Sharpton, 1996)

Mimbral glass


D. What suggest the spherules-bearing layer below the breccia-unit in the Albion Island quarry (Belize)

"The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary stratigraphy in north (Albion) and central (Armenia) Belize encompasses the Maastrichtian dolomite and overlying diamictite layer with basal spheroid bed. The northern Albion spheroid-bearing clay layer rests directly upon Maastrichtian dolostones and consists of brown to rust-colored clay, which is locally rich in oblate, pebble-size dolomitic spheroids. Near the bed base, it is rich in irregular red or green clay clasts. This whole clay layer ranges from 15 to 150cm thick. The basal contact is sharp and is usually marked by a paper-thin hematitic rind on the underlying Maastrictian dolostone. The spheroid-bearing clay layer is highly deformed. Studies of associated red and green clay clasts suggest that they are glass fragments that have been altered. This green clay clasts (clay spheroids) are smectites.

The diamictite unit rests directly upon the spheroid-bearing clay layer and consists of light tan, moderately indurated and matrix-rich, poorly sorted breccia. The diamictite unit contains at least 5 individual beds. Each of these beds ranges from 2 to 7 meters thick. Within individual beds, crude grading (with floating boulder clasts near or at the top of beds) is common.  As part of the crude grading, boulders located at the base of some beds show imbrication and clast support. Other internal structures are crude flow laminations, which are located in the upper one to 2 meters of each bed. Some beds have rare megaboulders  near their bases or tops. Other beds contain rare matrix-coated boulders up to 3 m in diameter. Diamictite matrix is mainly highly comminuted dolomite in the silt-clay size range. Matrix content commonly equals approximately 50 to 70 percent of the rock and matrix is more abundant near the tops of most beds. This matrix contains some red and green clay clasts, similar to those found within the underlying spheroid-bearing clay layer. These clay clasts are thought to have a similar origin to the ones mentioned earlier from within the spheroid-bearing clay layer. Red and green clay clasts are much more common in the lower 2 to 3 meters of the diamictite unit matrix. Comparison of underlying Maastrichtian dolomitic facies and lithologies of diamictite clasts shows significant differences."
Source: Homepage D. King


Albion Island quarry

Albion spheroid-bearing layer


Spheroid bed

Dolomite spheroid (lapilli)


"Diamictite" unit Albion



"Belize has figured prominently in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary controversy as a result of the discovery of clay spheroids and diamictite in the Albion Island and Armenia outcrops.
In the Albion Island quarry the spheroid layer overlies Maastrichtian dolomite and is between 1 and 2 m thick with some bedding features. This layer is characterized by abundant rounded to subangular bodies (or clasts) of dolomite and clay up to 2 cm in diameter, which float in a fine-grained matrix of friable dolomite and calcite-silt. The diamictite above the spheroid layer contains rounded to angular carbonate clasts in clay matrix with some relic glass preserved. The spheroids and diamictite layers have been interpreted as altered impact glass based on their smectite-rich clay composition. There are significant differences in the clay mineral compositions of the Maastrichtian dolomite, spheroid and diamictite units.
The spheroid clay layer is characterized by a single clay mineral phase, which consists of extremely well-crystallized smectite characterized by very high intensity, and a webby morphology with the major element a typical Cheto Mg-smectite (Si, Al, Mg, with minor Fe and K). This Cheto type Mg-smectite indicates a single origin for the spheroid layer and the alteration of glass.
In the diamictite above the spheroid layer, the clay composition is similar, with extremely abundant smectite (90%), but contains also minor amounts of palygorskite, kaolinite and illite. Smectite is slightly less well crystallized. These features suggest a multiple origin for the diamictite constituents, including erosion of carbonate sediments, soils and glass alteration."
Source:  Keller et al. (Journal of the Geological Society, 160, 2003)

Geochemical analyzes of Albion spherules by Pope et al. (1999)


Spheroid layer

Diamictite layer


n=12 max min n=11 max min


58.21 59.85 56.58 57.33 58.48 56.18


16.70 17.28 16.12 16.42 16.76 16.08


9.65 10.01 9.29 8.56 8.82 8.30


0.13 0.24 0.02 0.13 0.15 0.11


0.06 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.08 0.04


0.36 0.40 0.32 2.00 2.53 1.47


3.43 3.68 3.18 6.02 7.06 4.98


0.65 1.22 0.08 0.93 1.32 0.54


0.02 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00

                     Weight fractions in %


My opinion
The spheroid-bearing clay layer (smectite) in the Albion Island quarry (northern Belize), immediately above the eroded Maastrichtian bedrock, are older altered volcanic deposits, and include a time gap to the following Chicxulub event. The clay spheroids are altered volcanic glass, and the dolomite spheroids are accretionary lapilli. The overlying >15-m-thick diamictite are falling-back material from the Chicxulub event. The breccias unit containing rare altered glass, large accretionary blocks, striated, and impacted cobbles. The localities in Belize are unique because here is documented a volcanic activity before the Chicxulub event (right).

In southern Belize, these deposits are completely missing. Here are directly above the bedrock, with a time gap, deposits of the Paleocene, which are interspersed with reworked breccias (Cayo diamictite), other clasts and volcanic glasses. This is the result of a widespread volcanism at that time in the entire Caribbean region.
The situation is similar in the location Beloc/Haiti. About eroded Maastrichtian limestones follow on a time gap deposits of the Paleocene, which are interspersed with volcanic glasses.

The partly massive breccia packages of Guatemala and southern Mexico (Actela, Trinitaria, Bochil, Guayal, Campeche drilling field) again are falling-back debris from the Chicxulub event. It seems that the whole region was in time of the Chicxulub event in a non-marine phase. The biostratigraphically documented Paleocene sedimetation follows after a time gap.

In Central Mexico a widespread volcanism is noted in the Maastrichian period that started before the Chicxulub event and has continued even after the event. Analyzes of glasses documenting different volcanic origins. The thesis of reworked spherules should be discarded.

The spheroid-bearing layer in the Albion Island quarry could be the "missing link" for all older spherules-layers in Central America. Here is my suggestion:


Alvaro Obregon, Belize

Albion, Belize

Spheroid bed, Belize

Spheroid beds, Haiti

Spheroid beds, Mexico

Thickness of Chicxulub
ejection breccias


E. Some sources
Homepage Gerta Keller
Homepage David King
Homepage Jan Smit

Arz et al. (2004) --
Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental reconstruction at the Yaxcopoil-1 drill hole, Chicxulub crater, Yucatán Peninsula. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39(7), 1099–1111.
Claeys et al. 2003 -- The Suevite of drill hole Yucatan 6 in the Chicxulub impact crater. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 38(9), 1299-1317.
Claeys et al.           --
The two different melt rocks of the Chicxulub impact crater and .......  Lunar and Planetary Science, XXIX. [1361.pdf]
Hildebrand et al. (1991) --
Chicxulub crater: a possible Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary impact crater on the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Geology 19, 867-871.
Hecht et al. (2004) --
Composition of impact melt particles and the effects of post-impact alteration in suevitic rocks at the Yaxcopoil-1 ........  Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39, Nr 7, 1169–1186
Keller et al. (2003) --
Spherule deposits in Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary sediments in Belize and Guatemala. Journal of the Geological Society, 160, 783–795.
Keller et al. (2003) -- Multiple impacts across the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary. Earth-Science Review, 62, 3-4, 327-363.
Keller et al. (2004) --
More evidence that the Chicxulub impact predates the K/T mass extinction. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39(7), 1127-1144.
Keller, G.  (2012) -- The Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, Chicxulub impact, and Deccan volcanism. Earth and Life, International Year of Planet Earth, 759.
Kring et al. (2004) --
Impact lithologies and their emplacement in the Chicxulub impact crater: Initialresults from the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project, Yaxcopoil, Mexico. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39(6), 879-897.
Nelson et al.  (2012) --  Petrographic investigation of melt and matrix relationships in Chicxulub crater Yaxcopoil-1 brecciated melt rock and melt rock-bearing suevite (846–885 m, units 4 and 5). Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta 86, 1-20.
Pope et al. (1999) -- Chicxulub impact ejecta from Albion Island, Belize. Earth and Planetary Science, 170, 4, 351–364.
Schuraytz et al. (1994)
-- Petrology ot impact-melt rocks at the Chicxulub multiring basin, Yucatan, Mexico. Geology, vol 22.
Sharpton et al. (1993) --
Chicxulub multiring impact basin: Size and other characteristics derived from gravity analysis. Science 261, 1564-1567.
Smit et al. (2004) -- Is the transition impact to post-impact rock complete? Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39(7), 1113-1126.
Stinnesbeck et al. (2004) -- Yaxcopoil-1 and the Chicxulub impact. Geologische Rundschau, 93, 10423-1065.
Tuchscherer et al. (2004) --
 First petrographic results on impactites from the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole, Chicxulub structure, Mexico. Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39, Nr 6, 899–930.
Urrutia-Fucugauchi et al. (2011) -- The chicxulub multi-ring impact crater, Yucatan carbonate platform, Gulf of Mexico. Geofisica International, 50-1, 99-127.
Warren et al. (1996) --  Mega-impact melt petrology (Chicxulub, Sudbury, and the Moon. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 307