RKK Energia proposed to develop an ecologically safe, light-class launch vehicle Kvant based on proved and highly reliable elements that have been designed and manufactured at enterprises of the Russian Federation. These are:
oxygen-kerosene engines RD-120 used in LV Zenit, modified for the ground launch and installed on stage 1;
upper stage DM-SL currently used in Integrated Launch Vehicle Zenit-3SL and modified to serve as stage 2;
control system using high-frequency 3-axes gyrostabilized platform PV-300;
payload fairing used for upper stage DM on LV Proton.
Launch vehicle Kvant of a launch mass of 275 t (core diameter 3.9 m) based on these elements could deliver to a reference orbit 200 km high the following payloads:
Since 1996, RKK Energia and associated enterprises carried
out design studies on the feasibility of developing a light-class launch vehicle
Kvant-1 capable to deliver
spacecraft from 1.8 to 3.0 t in mass to low orbits of the artificial Earth satellite.
The two-stage launch vehicle Kvant-1 (core diameter 2.7 m) was designed to burn ecologically safe propellants, liquid oxygen-kerosene, and arranged like LV Kvant. In new stage 1 the Soyuz LV core stage manufacturing technology was used. In the capacity of stage 2 it was proposed to use upper stage blok LM. The stage 1 engine was derived from the available liquid-propellant engine RD-120M. The Molnya LV stage 3 engine was used for stage 2. The Kvant LV flight control system was based on the Yamal spacecraft flight control system. LV Kvant-1 with a launch mass of 83 t is capable to deliver the following payloads to a reference orbit 200 km high: