Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center * ROSKOSMOS * International Launch Service




 Orbital launches  Period

Last launch

Proton KM

/Block DM-2



2007 - 2010



/Block DM-03



2010 - 2013


/Block DM-03



2015, 2019

Proton-KM (Ph.0




2001 - 2004


Proton-KM (Ph.I)




2004 - 2008

Proton-KM (Ph.Im)




2010 - 2013

Proton-NM (Ph.II)




2007 - 2010

Proton-NM (Ph.III)




2009 - 2016

Proton-NM (Ph.IV)




2016 - 2020


KHRUNICHEV worked on a further development of the Proton-K. The fourth stage (Block DM) will replace by a new cryogenic OHSM (Oxygen - Hydrogen Acceleration Module) with the engine KVD-1 or alternatively by the block Breeze-M (UDMH/Nitrogen Tetroxide). The new engine modification for the first stage was designated as RD-275. Increase of thrust - 7.7% (162 ton instead of 150.3 ton), it is allow to increase payload mass on 600 kg.
Furthermore NPO Energomash began development of the RD-275M (14D14M) engine forcing at 5.2% by thrust. It is allow to increase payload mass for 150 kg.
The first Proton - KM with higher level Breeze-M and a payload Ekran-M (4) became at that 07. 04. 2001 successfully started.
Changes for the Proton-M consist of a number of minor enhancements to the first three stages. Stage inert weights are reduced using improved manufacturing techniques and a reduction in avionics mass.
Among a range of improvements which were incorporated into the Proton-M design, the very important innovations were concerned with propulsion units of its main stages, in a particular, with a use of the upgraded
RD-275 (formerly RD-253) and RD-0210/0211 rocket engines of first and second stages accordingly.
The RD-253 basic rocked engine was just upgraded in 1987 -1993 when its thrust was enhanced by 8 % (the engine received the RD-275 designation after this improvement). A further enhancement of the engine thrust, which was being provided in the frame of its preparation for use in the Proton-M, had its goal as an achievement of thrust additional gain by 5 % in a comparison with the level, which had been just achieved for the RD-275 engine. Analogous work was made in a regard of the RD-0210/0211 main rocket engines, the thrusts of which were enhanced by 5 % in a comparison with the basic version. A continuation of the work on an enhacement of parameters is foreseen in the following for the RD-0212 (RD-0213 + 4x RD-0214) third stage engine which is identical to the RD-0210.
Thus, the Proton launcher, which was used for a commercial launch in November 4, 1998, was equipped with these engines having the thrust enhanced by 2 %. This level was achieved in the engines which were installed in the first flight example of Proton-M launch vehicle (Ekran-M).
The new
upper stage  is a modified version of  the Breeze-KM upper stage  used on Rockot. It consists of two separate components. The cylindrical core section, which is very similar to the Breeze-KM, includes a single main engine, propellant tanks, and a avionics bay. Surrounding the core section is a toroidal auxiliary propellant tank that carries additional propellant. Breeze-M stage has a gimbaled main engine S5.98 with a thrust level of 19,62 kN, four verniers 11D458 with a thrust level of 99 N each, and 12 ACS thrusters with a thrust level of 13.3 N each.
DIRECTV 10 mission, at 07.07.2007, is the debut of the Enhanced Proton-M/Breeze-M (Proton-NM), which is capable of launching spacecraft over 6,000 kg into GTO.
The Proton-M/BreezeM upgrades include the production of  1,016 tonnes of sea-level thrust from the six
RD-275M (RD-276) first stage engines, reduction of tank mass in the first and second stages.
The coming upgrades include a replacement of metal with carbon epoxy isogrid structures in the second and third stages, use of a smaller number of larger tanks in the Briz-M stage, and the replacement of existing vernier thrusters by higher specific impulse thrusters.

Multiple payload fairings are available for the Proton-K and -KM:


Proton Fourth stage Length Diameter
DM-A K Block DM 7.65 3.90
DM-B K Block DM 8.90 3.90
DM-C K Block DM 10.40 3.90
DM-D K Block DM 10.40 4.15
PLF-DM 10000 K, KM Block DM 10.00 4.35
PLF-BR (1) K, KM Breeze-M 11.60 / 13.20 4.35
PLF-BR (2) KM Breeze-M 11.60 / 13.20 / 15.20 4.35

KHRUNICHEV debuted its new generation launch vehicle, the Proton-M/ Breeze-M with the launch of the Ekran-M satellite in April 2001. A major evolution from the Proton K launcher is the featured digital avionics on the Proton-M rocket. The Proton-M rocket paired with the Breeze-M upper stage, both designed and built by Khrunichev, offers improved performance, new mission design flexibility and increased payload volume under the fairing.
Changes: Improved propellant feed system in the first and second stages
Locations of flight instrumentation and of the associated support structures have been changed in the instrument bays of the first and third stages. Loads on the instrument bay of the second stage have been changed. Telemetry system sensors and antenna-feeder devices have been changed. Connector components in cables have been changed. Dynamic characteristics of the LV flight control system actuators have been changed
RD-275 1st stage propulsion at 102%
RD-0210 and RD-0211 2nd stage propulsion at 105%
Fuel consumption optimisation algorithms are used in LV guidance system. LV is made lighter by removing some telemetry instrumentation. Flight profile with 180 km high parking orbit is used
PLF design optimisation resulted in reduced PLF mass

As part of a continuous improvement program, the Phase I configuration of Proton/Breeze-M launcher enhancements carried out nearly all of the commercial missions in the 2004 to 2009 period. The last commercial Phase I Proton/Breeze-M flew the Astra 1M mission in November 2008.
Changes: LV mass is reduced by using isogrid design and high-strength aluminium alloys
Briz-M stage mass is reduced by using high-potential structural materials, improving production processes and improving certain structural elements

The Phase II Proton/Breeze-M rocket flew for the first time in July 2007 with the successful launch of the DirecTV 10 satellite. The last commercial Phase II Proton/Breeze-M flew the SkyTerra 1 mission in December 2010.
1st Stage : Reduction of tanks mass by using thinner tank skins and bottoms but based on the same aluminium alloys
Interstage: Composite structure (carboepoxy isogrid) replaces metal in aft bay stringer-and-ring frame
2nd Stage: Reduction of tanks mass by optimising the weight of structural elements: aft ends, skins and rings using the same aluminium alloys
2nd Stage Forward Interstage: Composite structure (carboepoxy isogrid) replaces metal in equipment bay stringer-and-ring frame
3rd Stage: Composite structure made of integral carboepoxy panels replaces metal in stringer-and-ring frame for reduction of aft bay mass
Other Proton Changes: RD-276 1st stage propulsion
Briz-M: New configuration of the avionics bay due to the use of two new high-pressure tanks (80 litres) to replace six smaller tanks, and relocation of command instruments towards the centre to mitigate shock loads when the additional propellant tank is being jettisoned; replacement of metal bottles for helium with those manufactured using composite materials; use of additional propellant tank (APT) with an upgraded prime structure; 11D458M vernier thrusters with higher specific impulse

The Phase III Proton/Breeze-M launch vehicle was flight proven on the Russian Federal dual mission of Express AM-44 and Express MD-1 in February 2009 and performed its first commercial launch in March 2010 with the Echostar XIV satellite. The Proton Breeze M phase III configuration is the current standard configuration for ILS Proton. This configuration provides 6150 kg of GTO performance, which is an increase of 1150 kg over the original Proton/Breeze-M, while maintaining the fundamental design configuration.
2nd Stage: Tank wall thickness
3rd Stage: Third stage propellant depletion
Other Proton Changes: Improved battery design
Briz-M: Power switch upgrade
Payload Fairing: Lighter fairing (lower density fillers and lower shell thickness)

Khrunichev has initiated development of a set of Phase IV enhancements in order to keep pace with market demands and the mass growth trends of commercial satellites. The implementation of Phase IV Proton/Breeze-M enhancements will be completed in 2013. The Payloads Systems Mass performance for Phase IV has been increased to 6350 kg to a reference GTO orbit.
2nd Stage: Tank reduced tolerances. New manufacturing tooling, 5 axis milling equipment
2nd Stage: Forward Interstage: 100% composite (improves winds aloft limit)
3rd Stage: Tank alloy change. Improved avionics bay design; 100% composite
Briz-M: Improved COPV tank design. Integrated RF/TLM system. Telemetry system weight reduction
Payload Fairing: Composite shell optimisation.