India's VIKAS engines and its relationship to the European Viking engines

 

VIKAS (an acronym for Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai) is a family of liquid-fuelled rocket engines conceptualized and designed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre since the 1970s.
The early production VIKAS engines used imported French components which were later replaced by domestically produced equivalents. It is used in the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) series of expendable launch vehicles for space launch use. VIKAS engines are used to power the second stage PSLV, boosters and second stage of GSLV Mark I and II and now the first stage of GSLV Mark III (LVM3).

Update 27.07.2018

Two new types of Vikas engines, HTVE (High Thrust VIKAS Engine) and HPVE (High Pressure VIKAS Engine), are of particular interest, but there are only confusing reports and photos.

"The next generation Vikas engine developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) is being flown for the first time. LPSC director Narayanan told  that the improved engine would give a significant advantage in terms of enhancing payload capability. Usually, the chamber pressure is 58 bar, but with the use of high-thrust Vikas engine, we will achieve 62 bar, which is a 6% increase in thrust that gives us 70 kgs of additional payload gain. Right now, we are going to use the high-thrust Vikas engine only in the second stage. Basically, we are validating it. For Chandrayaan-2 mission, we will be using five such engines aiming for a payload gain of around 250 kgs”.

It seems that:

  • The HTVE are modified VIKAS-2B engines and should primarily be used for the second stage of the GSLV. For two LVM3 launcher (X and D1), a SL-version of it was used of it.

  • The HPVE are significantly modified VIKAS engines. Two different versions are being developed for the GSLV booster and the first stage of the future LVM3 (D2).

  • The development of HPVE has been working for at least 8 years. There are pictures of combustion chambers in the test or mounted on LVM3 demonstrators.

  • The last test of the new combustion chamber for the LVM3 (D2) was successfully completed on July 16, 2018 (195 sec burn time).

 

Type

Designer

Nozzle
Diameter
 (m)

Nozzle
Length
 (m)
Nozzle
 Area Ratio
Chamb.
press.
 (MPa)
Fuel Mix Rate

Flow rate
 (t/sec

Thrust
 s.l. (kN)
Thrust
 vac (kN)

Isp s.l.
Ns/kg

Isp vac
Ns/kg
Launcher
 Booster/first stage

M55 (Viking-1)

 CNES         UDMH/N2O4     539.4      

Europa-III

Viking-2

~1.00 ~1.15   5.34   0.2545 596.5 667.5 2345 2623

-

Viking-5

~1.00 ~1.35 13.9 5.44 1.86 0.2545 596.5 667.5 2345 2623

Ariane-1

VIKAS-1

VIKAS industry ~1.00 ~1.15 13.9  5.35 0.2469 600.5 680.5 2432 2756

GSLV Mk.1

VIKAS-1B

1.14 ~1.15  ? ? UH25/N2O4 1.71 0.2710 677.7 765.5 2501 2824

GSLV Mk.1/2

HTVE SL (2)

~1.75 ~2.00   5.85 0.5719 1,514.2 1,693.6 2648 2962   GSLV Mk.3 (LVM3) D1

Viking-5B

CNES 0.99 ~1.35 10.5 5.85 1.71 0.2714 645.0 720.0 2376 2653

Ariane-2, -3

Viking-5C

0.99 ~1.35 10.5 5.85 0.2790 678.8 760.5 2432 2725

Ariane-4

Viking-6

0.99 ~1.35 10.5 5.85 0.2787 670.0 749.0 2404 2687

Ariane-4 booster

HPVE-1 (2)

VIKAS industry ~1.75 ~2.00   6.20     ~1,600 ~1,800 ? ?   GSLV Mk.3 (LVM3) D2

HPVE-2

~1.40 ~1.50   6.20    

~700

~800

? 2844   GSLV Mk.2+ (booster)
 Second stage

Viking-3

CNES         UDMH/N2O4     -   -  

-

Viking-4

1.71 ~2.00 30.8 5.24 1.86 0.2507 - 713.0 - 2844

Ariane-1

VIKAS-2

VIKAS industry ~1.71 1.99 30.8 5.30 0.2498 - 725.0 - 2903

GSLV Mk.1, PSLV

Viking-4B

CNES 1.71 ~2.00 30.8 5.85 UH25/N2O4 1.71 0.2753 - 784.8 - 2851

Ariane-2, -3

Viking-4B+

1.71 ~2.00 30.8 5.85 0.2815 - 807.8 - 2870

Ariane-4

VIKAS-2B

VIKAS industry 1.75 1.99   5.85 0.2716 - 804.5 - 2962

GSLV Mk.1/2, PSLV

HTVE vac

~1.75 ~2.00   6.20 0.2859 - 846.8 - 2962

GSLV Mk.2+, PSLV

 

Photographic References

License
Viking 5
-------------->
M-55 Viking-2 Viking-5   VIKAS-1 VIKAS-1B
     
Viking-5B Viking-5C Viking-6      
License
Viking-4
-------------->
Viking-3 Viking-4 Viking-4B   VIKAS-2 VIKAS-2B

 

 

HPVE-1 -------> LVM3_D2

 HPVE-2  --------->  GSLV (booster)

HTVE  ------>  GSLV

HTVE SL -------->  LVM3_D1