India's VIKAS engines and its relationship to the European Viking engines


VIKAS (an acronym for Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai) is a family of liquid-fuelled rocket engines conceptualized and designed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre since the 1970s.
The early production VIKAS engines used imported French components which were later replaced by domestically produced equivalents.
It is used in the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) series of expendable launch vehicles for space launch use.
VIKAS engines are used to power the second stage PSLV, boosters and second stage of GSLV Mark I and II and now the first stage of GSLV Mark III (LVM3).

 

Type

Designer

Nozzle
Diameter
 (m)

Nozzle
Length
 (m)
Nozzle
 Area Ratio
Chamb.
press.
 (MPa)
Fuel Mix Rate

Flow rate
 (t/sec

Thrust
 s.l. (kN)
Thrust
 vac (kN)

Isp s.l.
Ns/kg

Isp vac
Ns/kg
Launcher
 Booster/first stage

M55 (Viking-1)

 CNES         UDMH/N2O4     539.4      

Europa-III

Viking-2

~1.00 ~1.15   5.34   0.2545 596.5 667.5 2345 2623

-

Viking-5

~1.00 ~1.35 13.9 5.44 1.86 0.2545 596.5 667.5 2345 2623

Ariane-1

VIKAS-1

VIKAS industry ~1.00 ~1.15 13.9  5.35 1.86 0.2469 600.5 680.5 2432 2756

GSLV Mk.1

VIKAS-1+

~1.00 ~1.15 13.9 ? UH25/N2O4 1.87 0.2710 677.7 765.5 2501 2824

GSLV Mk.1/2

HTVE-1

 ~1.40 ~1.45   ? ? ? ? ? ? ?   GSLV Mk.2+ (booster)

Viking-5B

CNES 0.99 ~1.35 10.5 5.85 1.71 0.2714 645.0 720.0 2376 2653

Ariane-2, -3

Viking-5C

0.99 ~1.35 10.5 5.85 0.2790 678.8 760.5 2432 2725

Ariane-4

Viking-6

0.99 ~1.35 10.5 5.85 0.2787 670.0 749.0 2404 2687

Ariane-4 booster

HTVE-2 (2)

 VIKAS industry ~1.80 ~2.25   6.20 1.71 0.5719 1,514.2 1,693.6 2648 2962

GSLV Mk.3 (LVM3)

 Second stage
  Viking-3 CNES ~1.00       UDMH/N2O4     -   -  

-

  Viking-4 ~1.70 ~2.05 30.8 5.24 1.86 0.2507 - 713.0 - 2844

Ariane-1

VIKAS-2

VIKAS industry ~1.70 ~2.05 30.8 5.30 1.86 0.2498 - 725.0 - 2903

GSLV Mk.1, PSLV

Viking-4B

CNES ~1.70 ~2.05 30.8 5.85 UH25/N2O4 1.71 0.2753 - 784.8 - 2851

Ariane-2, -3

Viking-4B+

1.70 ~2.05 30.8 5.85 0.2815 - 807.8 - 2870

Ariane-4

VIKAS-2B

VIKAS industry ~1.70 ~2.05 30.8 5.85 0.2716 - 804.5 - 2962

GSLV Mk.1/2, PSLV

HTVE-2

~1.80 ~2.25   6.20 0.2859 - 846.8 - 2962

GSLV Mk.2+

*canceled, or only for tests

Photographic References

License
Viking 5
-------------->
M-55 Viking-2 Viking-5   VIKAS-1 VIKAS-1+
     
Viking-5B Viking-5C Viking-6      
License
Viking-4
-------------->
Viking-3 Viking-4 Viking-4B   VIKAS-2 VIKAS-2B

 

 

 HTVE-TE HTVE-2 LVM3 HTVE-2  GSLV

 HTVE-1 GSLV (booster)