The Soviet "Scud" missile family
  

Contents:

R-11 (8A61)
R-11M (8K11, Scud-A)
R-11MU
R-11M  propulsion
  
R-17(M) (8K14(M), Scud-B & Scud-C)
R-17  propulsion

R-17 VTO
Iranian Shahab-1 & -2
North Korean Hwasong-5)
North Korean Hwasong-6
Iranian Qiam-1

Iraqi Al-Hussein / Al-Hijarah / Al-Abbas

R-17MU (8K14MU, Scud-D or -ER)
North Korean Hwasong-7
 

Norbert Brügge, Germany

Update:
23.03.2017

 

 


Rear of a Scud-B  missile without jet vanes



 


Comparison between Scud-B and Scud-D

 

R-11M (Scud-A)

R-17 (Scud-B)

Hwasong-5
Shahab-2

Al-Hussein-1

Al-Abbas

R-17M (Scud-C)

Hwasong-6

Qiam-1

R-17MU
 (Scud-D or -ER)

Hwasong-7

Length total

10.604 m

11.164 m

10.944 m

12.264 m

13.244 m

11.166 m

11.166 m

10.500 m

12.406 m

12.406 m

Length without control unit/ warhead

 7.441 m

 7.444 m

 7.444 m

 8.764 m

  9.740 m

 7.894 m

 7.894 m

 7.894 m

  9.134 m

  9.134 m

Diameter (m)

 0.88 m

 0.88 m

 0.88 m

 0.88 m

 0.88 m

 0.88 m

 0.88 m

 0.88 m

 0.88 m

 0.88 m

Propellant

T-1 /AK-20F

TM-185 /AK-27I

TM-185 /AK-27I

TM-185 /AK-27I

TM-185 /AK-27I

TM-185 /AK-27I

TM-185 /AK-27I

TM-185 /AK-27I

UDMH /AK-27

UDMH /AK-27

Kerosene /
80%HNO3+20%N2O4

Kerosene /
73%HNO3+27%N2O4

Kerosene /
73%HNO3+27%N2O4

Kerosene /
73%HNO3+27%N2O4

Kerosene /
73%HNO3+27%N2O4

Kerosene /
73%HNO3+27%N2O4

Kerosene /
73%HNO3+27%N2O4

Kerosene /
73%HNO3+27%N2O4

Hydrazine /
73%HNO3+27%N2O4

Hydrazine /
73%HNO3+27%N2O4

Mass propellant (t)

 3.411

 3.759

 3.759

 4.337

 5.205

  4.337

 4.337

 4.337

 5.732

 5.732

Engine

S2.253 (8D511)

S5.2 (9D21)

S5.2 (9D21)

S5.2 (9D21)

S5.2 (9D21)

 S5.2 (9D21)

S5.2 (9D21)

S5.2 (9D21)

 Isayev

 Isayev

Thrust s.l. (kN)

 81.4

 132.1

132.1

 132.1

 132.1

 132.1

 132.1

 132.1

 149.9

 149.9

Thrust vac (kN)

 94.8

 146.3

146.3

 146.3

 146.3

 146.3

 146.3

 146.3

 165.5

 165.5

Isp s.l. (Ns/kg)

 2148

 2285

2285

 2285

 2285

 2285

 2285

 2285

 2354

 2354

Isp vac Ns/kg)

 2501

 2530

2530

 2530

 2530

 2530

 2530

 2530

 2599

 2599

Burn time, nominal (sec)

 90

 65

65

 75

 90

  75

 75

 75

90

90

Total vacuum impulse (MNs)

 8.53

 9.51

9.51

 10.97

 13.17

  10.97

 10.97

 10.97

 14.90

 14.90

TM-185 fuel
Polymer Distillate:   56 % (+/- 1,5 %)
Light Oil Pyrolyse:  40 % (+/- 1 %) for the increase of the density and the resistance against the oxidation through oxygen
Trikrezol:                 4 % (prevents the crystallization of water)

AK-27I oxidizer
Concentrated Nitric Acid:  69.8 - 70.2%
Di-nitrogen Tetroxide:           24 - 28%
Water:                                 1.3 - 2%
Iodium inhibitor:             0.12 -0.16%

Ignition is accomplished by a hypergolic start fuel designated TG-02 "Samin" filled into the fuel line at the main fuel valve. TG-02 consists of 50 percent Tri-ethyl Amine and 50 percent Xylidiene. The propellant fed system is a turbo pump driven by a bipropellant gas generator using the main propellants. The start and shut down valves are one shot devices, actuated by pyrotechnic charges. For improving the accuracy the engine is equipped with mechanical controls for correct thrust level and mixture ratio. Tank pressurization is performed by air stored in high-pressure bottles in the missile's tail section, which are heated by the turbine exhaust gases.

 

R-11 (8A61)


       
8A61 (R-11)


R-11A (Sounding rocket)


R-11


            
R-11F & R-11FM (SLBM)
 

R-11M (8K11, Scud-A)


Engine
: Single-chamber rocket engine S2.253 / 8D511 design OKB-2, chief designer Isayev (developed in 1952). The rocket R-11FM - S2.253A engine.
Starting method:  Self-ignition of the starting fuel and oxidizer
Fuel supply:  Displacing liquid accumulator pressure (on the first experimental missiles in 1953 with a powder-pressure accumulator).
Fuel:  Kerosene T-1 / TS-1
Oxidizer:  AK-20 (20% Nitrogen Tetroxide + 80% Nitric Acid)
Starting fuel:  TG-02 "Tonka-250" (a mixture of 50% Xylidine and 50% Triethylamine.
Thrust:   8,300 kg (s.l.)
Thrust: 10,300 kg (vac); 13,300 kg (R-11M)
Specific impulse:  219 sec (s.l.)


Scud-A launch



R-11M (Scud-A) on TEL (ISU-152)


                   



 



German Scud-A



Forward tank segment                                                         Intertank segment                                                                           Engine bay                    
 

R-11MU (8K12)


The R-11MU / 8K12 is an upgrading of the R-11M - a topic of research "Ural". Development began in SKB-385 (chief designer Makeyev)  in 1957 by project will upgrade missiles (duplicate circuits and components of equipment improve performance) without changing the composition of complex equipment. Due to changes in the mass range of equipment needed to maintain a more powerful engine with a turbo pump assembly for fuel (instead of the displacement system). The project is proposed to use engine EDB S3.42T-3 (chief designer  Sevruk) which range is estimated to be 150 km. With the new engine developers proposed the creation of a new missile modernization instead of the R-11M. By resolution 1958 were asked to develop on the basis of the R-11MU missiles R-17 (version 1).
Single-chamber rocket engine EDB S3.42T-3 (chief designer Sevruk). The engine is designed based on the engine S3.42A, used for V-300 La 217. The engine S3.42T-3 is similar to the later version Isayev
S5.1 .
Starting method: Self-ignition of the starting fuel and oxidizer. Fuel supply - turbopump assembly running from the gas generator.
Thrust:  13,000 kg (approx.)
Fuel: 
TM-185
Oxidizer:  AK-27
Starting fuel:  TG-02 "Samin"

R-11M  propulsion


     


Scud-A engine S2.253 (8D511)


Rear of a Scud-A with its special characteristics


         
 

R-17 (8K14, Scud-B) & R-17M (8K14M, Scud-C)


R-17/8K14 was designed by the Soviet Makeev design bureau (SKB-385) in the late 1950s. The 9D21 engine for the R-17 was designed by the Isayev design bureau. The nominal length of the missile is 10.944 m (conventional WH), the nuclear WH version is 11.164 m long.
Significant differences between the Scud-B (R-17) and the Scud-C (R-17M) are  the relocation of the oxidizer-tank forward, the abolition of the intertank section, a shorter guidance section and the transfer of the pressure-gas bottles from the engine bay to the place below the warhead as toroidal tank
.


Comparison between Scud-B and Scud-C


        



One of the first's R-17 missiles on mod. Scud-A TEL


One of the first's R-17 missiles on mod. Scud-A TEL (ISU-152K)



Rear of a Scud-B  missile with jet vanes

                    


               
Scud-B intertank section                                                                                  Tank bottom and engine bay

       
Guidance section



 


Warhead types


Vietnamese Scud-B


Scud-B missile in Afghanistan

Libyan Scud-B


Soviet Scud-B in Germany


Propellant storage container, found on North-Korean Kuwolsan freighter

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

German Scud-B

Vietnamese Scud-B

 Syrian Scud-B (Golan-3)

Libyan Scud-B

Iranian Shahab-2

Northkorean Hwasong-5 Northkorean Hwasong-6

 

   R-17  propulsion


      
Shahab-2 engine

 
               

                                            9D21


  


Injector plate
 

 
    

 

 

R-17 (version 1) - single-chamber rocket engine EDB S3.42T-3 (chief designer  Sevruk) - used in the design stage of R-11MU and in the first series of R-17. The engine is designed based on the engine S3.42A used for V-300 La217. The engine S3.42T-3 is similar to the later version Isayev S5.1 .
Starting method: Self-ignition of the starting fuel and oxidizer
Fuel supply: Turbo pump assembly running from the gas generator.
Dry mass:  160kg
Thrust:  13,000 kg (approx.)
Fuel: 
TM-185
Oxidizer:  AK-27
Starting fuel:  TG-02 "Samin"


R-17 (version 2
) - single-chamber rocket engine S5.2 / 9D21 DB-5 (chief designer Isayev), motor open circuit with TNA and gas generator, turbine drive gas out of the starting powder chamber. The engine was produced commercially from 1962 to 1985 Votkinsk Machine Building Plant. Design support LRE is the same Votkinsk plant.
Starting method: Self-ignition of the starting fuel and oxidizer
Fuel supply: Turbopump assembly running from the gas generator
Thrust: 13,310-13,380 kg (various sources)
Specific Impulse (s.l.):  226 sec
Specific Impulse (vac):  258 sec
Fuel consumption:  57.83 kg/sec
Length: 1,490 mm
Maximum diameter:  770 mm
The diameter of the combustion chamber:  380 mm
Nozzle throat diameter:  124.5 mm
Nozzle exit diameter: 400 mm
The pressure in the combustion chamber:  69.4 kg /cm
The pressure at the nozzle exit:  0.827 kg /cm

Fuel:  Kerosene mixture of TM-185 (B6 OCT-02-43-84).
Weight:  822 kg kg (20 degrees C)
Ingredients:
Polimerdistillate: 56 +/- 1.5%
Light Oil Pyrolyse:  40 + /- 1.0% (to increase the density and resistance to oxidation)
Trikrezol:  4 +/- 0.5% (prevents crystallization of water)
Oxidizer:  AK-27I ("Melange" Standard V18112-72)
Weight: 2,919 kg (20 degrees C)
Ingredients:
Concentrated Nitric Acid:  69.8 - 70.2%
Nitrogen Tetroxide:  24 - 28%
Water:  1.3 - 2%
Aluminum salts (not more than 0.01% )
Iodine:  0.12 - 0.16% (inhibitor)
Density:  1.596 - 1.613
Starting fuel:  TG-02 "Samin" (GOST V17147-71)
Weight:  30-35 kg + 1 liter is filled into the rocket just before launch.
Ingredients:
Isomeric Xylidines:  50 +/- 2%
Triethylamine Technical:  50 +/- 2%
Water:  0.4% ( 0.835-0.855 kg)



Refuelling of the Scud missile



Turbopumps of  Shahab-2 engine



Cutaway of a Shahab-2 engine

 
                                   
 

R-17 VTO (8K14-1F, Scud VTO)


The R-17 VTO / 8K14-1F "Aerofon" is a missile with a warhead that has the ability with optical instruments to locate the target. Experimental design tests of MS "Aerofon" began at Kapustin Yar from November 1977 to September 1979 with starts on 8K14-1 missiles. During state testing conducted 22 missile launches with MS "Aerofon."


                               
Scud-B with optical warhead "Aerofon"



Scud-B on TEL with optical warhead "Aerofon"
 

Shahab-1 & -2 (Scud-B)


 
          








 

  Shahab-1


           
Shahab-1 with WH type 8F44 (right: winged)

    

 

Hwasong-5 (Scud-B)


     

North-Koreas's Hwasong-5
 



Hwasong-6 (Scud-C)



Hwasong-6 with new double-conic WH


           
....... not a Hwasong-7 (Scud-ER)

 

Qiam-1 (Scud-C)


     
Qiam-1 is a changed Scud-C without fins and a new design of warhead


Qiam-1 details: Note the position the fuel drain valve !


Comparison between Iranian Shahab-2 and Qiam-1



Qiam-1 mockup



Source: Forum military.ir



 

TEHRAN, 2011, May 22 -- The Qiam-1 missile was delivered now to the Aerospace Force of the Islamic Revolution Guards. Iranian television showed 10 missiles inside a hanger.
No details given on the technology used in the making of the missile. The rocket is very likely a derivative of the Soviet Scud-C.
The Qiam design reduces the possibility of being detected by enemy anti-missile systems and the omission of its fins has increased the missile speed. These new missiles enjoy supersonic speed and cannot be tracked or intercepted by the enemy.
The new technology installed inside the missile enables it to fly towards targets without stabilizer fins, but instead with an advanced navigation and guidance system. The Qiam-1 was test-fired in August 2010.

 

 

R-17MU (8K14MU, Scud-D or-ER)


A completely unknown vehicle, here called R-17MU (8K14MU), was developed and tested from 1964 to 1968. It is possible that the R-17MU missile with the Western designation Scud-D corresponds. This Scud-D misssile maybe a stretched R-17 (about 1.7 m) with a new propellant combination of UDMH/AK-27. The new engine could be a dowled Isayev "Nodong" engine.
A sketch of the R-17MU (Scud-D) missile was accidentally found on the North Korean freighter "Kuwolsan"
(Schmucker Technologie). The plotted dimensions documents a total length of 12.406 m of the missile. According to reports was decided in the late 1960s not to take over for the series production the R-17MU missile. Therefore divided the R-17MU the same fate with the R-17K (Nodong), which was also developed and tested in the 60s. The fuel combination UDMH/AK-27 is for a tactical missiles completely unsuitable because must be a on-site refueling.

But it is obvious that the R-17MU as well the R-17K have outlived their scrapping and some missiles was exported to North Korea. There were made reproductions, known as Kwasong and "Nodong". What the North Korean Kwasong variants of the Scud-D is assigned can not be verified. Maybe it is the Kwasong-6.
In Iran, the Shahab-1 and Shahab-2 probably equivalents of the Scud-B and Scud-C, while the Shahab-3 with the "Nodong" corresponds.


Note:
At places in Afghanistan have been found alleged UDMH-containers now, which stand in connection with Soviet Scud rockets from the war in Afghanistan. Since is supposed, that also other Scud's were stationed, the idea is obvious, that this missile is of other quality as the Scud-B/C.



Alleged UDMH storage containers in Afghanistan



 

Excerpt

Rocket fuel storage area
Location 2: It served as a storage area for cylindrical containers presumably filled with the rocket propellant dimethylhydrazine (UDMH). All of 107 containers – with an estimated capacity of 500 litres each – were kept in two separate stockpiles.
Closer inspection of the open containers revealed the presence of a white residue at the bottom.
Although none of the containers were found to be leaking, a faint, acrid, ammonia-like odour was clearly perceptible in their immediate vicinity.
These old factory indications are consistent with the degradation process of hydrazine compounds, which form ammonia, hydrogen, and nitrogen when exposed to ultraviolet radiation (WHO, 1987).

Soil quality
Methylhydrazine was found in elevated concentrations in two composite samples, including that recovered from the superficial soil surrounding the rocket fuel containers stored at ground level (location 2). A pH of 3.9 was also recorded from this particular sample, suggesting that the soil in this area was reasonably acidic.
Given that hydrazines are basic compounds, the low pH reading could be attributable to a spill or leak of nitric acid in the past. This hypothesis is further supported by the relatively strong presence of nitrates in samples taken from this area, suggesting that UDMH and nitric acid were mixed there during rocket fuelling.

Note: The results of field studies are unfortunately not convincing.



 


A proposal for the origin of the unknown Scud-D engine

Hwasong-7 (Scud-D or -ER)


In 1998, North Korea attempted to launch a small satellite for the first time. The rocket that was used for this mission, the so-called Taepo Dong-1 (Paektusan), was seen only once at this very occasion, and never again. According to available imagery, the first stage was a Nodong, and the dimensions of the second stage seemed similar to a Scud. But this stage was equipped with engines of varying thrust level -- a main engine and four small engines.
The upper stage of the North Korean Taepo Dong-1
space launcher was probably a Soviet Scud-D (Hwasong-7) missile. The propellant is consequently a combination of  UDMH/AK-27 propellants.
The modified propulsion burns in two different thrust levels for 49 and 121 sec. After shutdown of the main engine are ignited the four added small engines.


        
                                                                                                                           Possibly a Scud-D (Hwasong-7)


This scheme from an extended range Scud missile was found on the captured freighter "Kuwolsan"

(but with a problem to interpret the controll unit/WH dimension)

 

 

Schiller & Schmucker, 2016
Quote: "One of these mysterious other missiles was said to be a wrung-out Scud with a diameter of 1.025 m, a total length of more than 12 m and a launch mass of 9.3 metric tons. According to rumors, the weapon had a range of 1,000 km with a 500-kg warhead. The data indicated a very ambitious design beyond North Korea’s proven capabilities, but because the missile was never seen and no indications emerged of development work, observers dismissed reports of the weapon as part of a North Korean disinformation campaign."

Note: That with the diameter makes no sense

 


Sources: 
 http://military.tomsk.ru/blog/topic/210/topics.html
                  
http://www.rwd-mb3.de/pages/8k14c.htm
                   http://www.peterhall.de/srbm/missiles/ussr/8k11/scud15.htm
                  
http://www.un.org/depts/unmovic/new/documents/compendium/Chapter_IV.pdf
                   http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/afghanistan_cont.pdf
                   http://www.thespacereview.com/archive/1498.pdf
                  
http://www.c-x-i.eu/wp-content/Schmucker-Schiller-The_Missile_Show_DRAFT_10-05-05-1.pdf
                   http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2012/RAND_TR1268.pdf 
                   http://38north.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Scud-ER-110816_Schiller_Schmucker.pdf
                  Schmucker & Schiller, Raketenbedrohung 2.0, Verlag Mittler & Sohn, 2015
 

Al-Hussein / Al-Hijarah / Al-Abbas (homemade)


The Iraqi
Al-Hussein missile was a changed Soviet Scud-B missile (export varinat with conventional warehead). The mysterious other longer Al-Hijarah and Al-Abbas missiles were also homemade missiles on base of cannibalised Scud-B missiles. All variants used TM-185 and AK-27I propellants.
It is characteristic for the Iraqi Al-Hussein-1 variant, that five of the six air pressure bottles are moved from the tail section to the empty cavity of the missile warhead. Later was used a toroidal tank (Al-Hussein-2).


Iraqi Scud engine



Rear of a Iraqi Al-Hussein  missile


Air pressure bottles in front of the missile


Destroyed Iraqi Scud missile with visibly engine S5.2

       
Iraqi Scud on static launch pad


Al-Hussein-2 ?


Al-Hussein-1


                             
Iraqi Al-Hussein missile on parade


Iraqi Al-Abbas (?) in launch position on static launch pad


A rare picture with an Iraqi  Al-Abbas (?) on stretched TEL without erector
Al-Abbas was fired from a static pad !


Picture from an Al-Nida launch pad with erector


Al-Abid test launch vehicle probably have used a cluster of Al-Abbas missiles



A rare picture of an Iraqi experimental Scud engine
 with nozzle expansion (planned for the Al-Abid second stage)