History and Evolution of Semyorka's Block-I and its engines

(RD-0107, RD-0108, RD-0110 and RD-0124)

The Block I is the standard of the Semyorka launcher since 1960 in function as second stage, but with some changes over time. That concerns the used fuel kerosene, the mixing ratio with the oxygen oxidizer and the architecture of the engines.

The current four-chamber RD-0124 engine developed for the Block-I of the Soyuz-2 launcher have the basic design of the veteran RD-0110 of the previous Soyuz rockets.
 The RD-0110 engine burning kerosene and liquid oxygene in a gas generator combustion cycle. It has four fixed nozzles and the output of the gas generator is directed to four secondary steering nozzles to supply vector control of the stage.
The main difference between RD-0110 and RD-0124 is the introduction of the so-called closed-cycle system for the RD-0124, where oxidizer gas, after drive the engines-pump, then directed into the combustion chamber, because the steering nozzles are absent.

The first version of the engine series, was already born as Kosberg RD-0106 for the second stage of the R-9 missile. The following versions, RD-0107 and RD-0108, were then used for the Block I of the early Semyorka launchers until 1967 and (unconfirmed) 1976 . The more effective RD-0110 was already available in mid-1965 for the Block-I, but was initially used mainly for the launch of reconnaissance satellites of the type "Zenit". Unlike the current RD-0124 engine, all predecessors had four additional control engines. Finally, were changed the tank architecture and the mixing ratio of oxygen / kerosene from 2.22 to 2.34 (and this already for the version of Block-I with the engine RD-0110).

The Angara launcher use an adapted RD-0124A engine, which has been currently further modified, as evidenced by a photo from early 2019. Details are unknown. An engine RD-0124DR for the Soyuz-2-3 should be as well as the launcher itself out of date. For the new Irtysh launcher (former Sunkar), a totally new single RD-0124M engine with its own turbopump is being developed, which will be bundled four or two times . The thrust is significantly higher.

1. Operational Status

Launch vehicle

Block-I design

Main engine

Operational
(10.10.1960 - 27.05.2019)

Molniya

8K78

 

RD-0107

31 (+2 before)

Molniya-M, Voskhod

8K78M, 11A57

RD-0108

35 190

Voskhod

11A57 155

Molniya

8K78

 RD-0110

10 1368

Molniya-M

8K78M

244

Voskhod

11A57

144

Voskhod-L & -M

11A511 (L,M)

11

Voshod-U

11A511 (U)

432

Soyuz

11A511

32

Soyuz-U

11A511U

356

Soyuz-U2

11A511U2

71

Soyuz-FG

  68

Soyuz-2.1a

 

 changed tank design

 RD-0110

38 38

Soyuz-2.1b

 

 changed tank design
without verniers

 RD-0124

46 49

Soyuz-2.1v

  4

2. Engines

RD-0107

RD-0110

RD-0124

 

RD-0110 RD-0124

 

RD-0124A RD-0124A mod RD-0124M


Flow diagrams


Specifications

 Designation

Nozzle

Nozzle area ratio

Cham. pressure (MPa)  Thrust (kN))  Isp (Ns/kg)  Flow rate (kg/sec)  Propellant Mix Launcher

RD-0106

 8D715 4 82.2 ? 300.3 3236

92.79

T-1/LOX ?

R-9 missile

RD-0107

 RO-8 6.82 300.3 3236 92.79 ?

Molniya
Voskhod
Soyuz

RD-0108

 RO-9

RD-0110

 RD-461 15.53

297.9

3197

93.19

RG-1/LOX 2.22

RD-0110+

301.6

3236 2.34 Soyuz-2.1a, -2.1v

RD-0124

 14D23 15.69

294.3

3501

84.06

Soyuz-2.1b

RD-0124DR

 

295.9

3521 Soyuz-2-3

RD-0124A

  Angara

RD-0124M

 

2 x 1

?

16.19

295.8

3413

86.68

?

Irtysh (Sunkar)

Note: The pool of data was contradictory and inadequate

 

3. Structure

 


Rear of Block-I with engine RD-0110


Rear of Block-I with engine RD-0124