|The Block-D was developed in the
early 1960s as an upper stage for both the manned L3 lunar mission on
the N1 rocket, as well as for the Proton-K. A modified military version
was developed for the ICBM GR-1. For the Shuttle Buran was built in the
1980s, a double version. Finally, from the year 1999, the Zenit rocket
got a special version, the block DM-SL (B) with a slightly lower thrust
of the engine RD-58M.
The block D has been modified many times since its first introduction
in 1967. This also applies to the RD-58 engine, which in its newest version
has a carbon composite nozzle (Block DM-SL (B)). The engine itself is
constructed as a closed GG cycle. The fuel used is the combination kerosene
(RG-1) / LOX. In the period 1982-1996 synthetic kerosene (Sintin) with
a higher efficiency (Isp) was also used. But the production of Sintin
was discontinued in 1995.
With the project "Dvina" it is to be achieved a further improvement of
the block D for both the proton and zenith as well as Angara etc. So far,
however, only the phase I (11S861-03) was realized, and used for three
times on the Proton-KM. In Phase IIa, the RD-58M engine should to receive
an extendable nozzle extension. In Phase II, the new RD-58MF engine will
deliver a longer burn time with greatly reduced thrust.
Until September 14, 2015, the block D was used a total of 321 times on
the proton or zenith, of which 66 times for commercial payloads.
Flow diagram of RD-58 rocket engine