The Djebel (Jebel)
Uweinat is a small isolated mountain massif in the three-country corner
of Libya-Egypt-Sudan. It lies in a hostile hot desert region, far from
the civilization. The climatic conditions are due to decades missing rainfall
for vegetation extremely difficult. Today, trees in the rugged terrain
of the mountains only in dry wadis can surviving. There are only acacias
that with their long roots the remaining water reservoirs in the underground
In the past, the climate in the Uweinat was much friendlier for the vegetation,
then in the recent past with a tendency to deteriorate. That is documented
by many rock paintings from the Neolithic period and the remains of dwellings
of the residents of the last nomadic Tibu people.
The Egyptian Ahmed Pasha Hassanein was the first explorer to reach
the Uweinat in 1923. The settlement was already over at this time. The
Uweinat was apparently visited only occasionally by the descendants of
Today only interested trekkers traveling in the Uweinat and walk far on
the plateau. Smugglers and camel-caravans to pass only the peripheral
areas. After robberies on trekkers in recent years is the official way
to reach the Uweinat is now severely limited.
There were and are still several permanent water sources (Ain) in dry
wadis. They are leachate sources supplied from the mountains. Known are
Ain Zueia, Ain Dua and Ain Duarme in the Libyan part, and Ain Murr in
the Sudanese part of the Uweinat. For a description of a Tibu in 1933,
an as Ain-el-Brins named water hole should be somewhere between Ain Dua
and the Karkur Murr (Ain Murr). Considered are small Gueltas in the lower
course of the Wadi Wahesh. But they are only temporarily filled by rainfall.
Since the 30s could be known, that date palms (Phoenix dactylifera)
grow at the water source of Ain Murr (in the Karkur Murr). The
first mention and images were but only in 2002 by Andras Zboray
(fjexpeditions.com) published. He had led a trekking group.
Also at Ain Duarme, in a side branch of Karkur Ibrahim, date palms
are now documented photographically.
How is it possible that date palms grow in the difficult climatic situation
in the Uweinat. They are certainly here not more viable and are already
extinct. Within a radius of hundreds of kilometers there is no source
for date palms.
Therefore, it is almost certainly just a pure coincidence, that date palms
grow near water sources in these dry wadis. Obviously, before perhaps
100 years, people in these two places rested and have eaten date fruits.
A reproduction of the date palms of the Jebel Uweinat is obviously not
possible. They do not bear fruits. There are only dwarf palms.
Date palms have either only female flowers (they provide the fruits),
or only male flowers (they provide the pollen). Wind or insects take over
the pollination of female flowers. Obviously, here grow only male or female